The Position of Atlantis
von Karl Juergen Hepke
After the historic report of Platon we will now look at the position of today, for taking Atlantis from the area of fables to the ground of facts. Following Platon Atlantis was situated behind the "Pillars of Herakles". The district which was south of the town was named "Gadeiros".
The Spanish town
North of Cadiz there is a plain which is nearly 150 Km
large at the sea and is extending in west-east direction nearly 300 Km into
Against the cold wind of the north the plain is
protected by a long range of mountains which is called today Sierra Morena. In
the plain there is a lot of little rivers and as a big one , which is passable
also for large seaships , the
In the language of the Arabian conquerors of that time the country was called "al Andaluz" which following customary interpretation comes from the "Vandals", who here settled before the Visigoths as first people of the Germanic migration and than moved on to North Africa. But a little bit unclear pronounced and thinking of the thousands of years of oral and written name tradition which has passed, not so far away from the name "Atlantis" of the old Egyptians, which in their language meant "island without name".
In this country was situated once a rich and famous town, which was called by the ancient Greeks "Tartessos" and is named in the Bible in the book of Jesaja and at many other points under the name of "Tharsis" or "Tarschisch". It is called here the merry town, which is proud of its age. Its merchants, which had branches at Tyrus and
Following the texts of the Bible, Tharsis and the Chittits were sons of Javan, the ankle of Noah, who lived in the western countries and on the islands of the heathens. The ships of Tharsis were the wealthiest and most powerful on the sea and Tharsis itself is called the "town of primeval times".
We will not call the town with the name of
"Tartessos", under which it is known in
Because here we are talking about its first great time we will use the name which is used in the Bible
T h a r s i s
And we will see , that it is identical with Platons "Atlantis" in all points.
It is not astonishing, that this signifying roll has
found its expression in some overcoming reports of history. An Egyptian stele
with hieroglyphs, by means of which an old , high-ranged Egyptian priest told
the Greek Solon the story of power and importance of Atlantis and the Bible,
the probably most important book of old history of the West. Also Homer has put
a monument to it with his story of Scheria , the town of the kings of the
Phaeakean , where Odysseus finally
arrived after his long voyages. Over that, in Egyptian hieroglyph mentions you
can find the name of nations of Atlantis which are often simply put together in
the name of the "sea-people”. From the archives of the Egyptian kings is
known a correspondence with the country "Alasija", which probably
means "Atlantis". For the first supposition, that Alasija was
This seems to be nevertheless not very much and not
appropriate to the historical importance of the country and the town. This is
due to the devastations which were produced by later nations in the
Mediterranean area. On standing out place you will find here the Romans. They
have caused the destruction of the library of
The succession of them was taken by the early Christians and later by the Catholic Church. They condemned any knowledge coming from older times as "heathen" and destroyed it inconsiderately. An other reason for it, is the politics of secrecy which was practised by the countries of the Atlantean empire.
Atlanteans and their successors the Phoenicians and also the Carthageans provided
by all means, that no Greek ship could enter into the sea west of
But now back to the today position of the town of
The town which lies today at the place of the former
In the area of Puerto and its port were found at some 10 000 m2 the vestiges of a village in form of huts and houses and assigned to that subterranean constructions in form of a bell which served as silos and sometimes as tombs. Also were found tools for the production of sun-dried bricks and places of cooking, richly furnished with usual kitchen equipment. Knife-edges, handmade pottery, crescent shaped teeth, arrowheads, thin plates of trapezoid form, sharped flints, splinters of stones and bones were found, showing that there was production of tools and devices for daily use. This early settlement was dated to 3500 B.C.
A look at the Michelin-map of
Already in front of
This spider-web formed road network shows once more
the importance of the region. It is shown also by the fact that there happened
the deciding battle between the Visigoths and the Moors .
Also the Romans won here a deciding battle. It looks like a fact, that the conquest of this region was an absolute precondition for the mastery of the hinterland, and it becomes clear, why the here positioned town was at last totally levelled and made inhabitable by the conqueror. The conqueror than prevented for a long time , that it was reconstructed.
This points in direction of Rome, for it is known, that the Romans, first in Etruria , than in Carthage and later on in Jerusalem and at many not so well-known places, prevented, that old famous towns were reconstructed after the conquest and destruction by them for nothing should reduce the fame of the world ruling city of Rome. Beside this, the Romans ruled over 400 years South-Iberia and this time was sufficient to extinguish the knowledge of the old town in the memory of the inhabitants of the country. The archaeological report published in 2003 confirms this supposition.
The highest elevation of the mountain at its south-eastern end is given in the map as 124 m. In front of it is situated a hill of nearly one kilometre length and 30 m height. Here you find the large archaeological excavation which shows until now a fortified town of the time between the ninth and the third century B.C. At this digging up has been worked since 1978.
There were found extensive rests of walls of burned houses, surrounded by fortifications. In the houses were found pottery, Phoenician devices and rests , which are showing an intensive exchange with the Greeks. This town is, following the archaeological won dates of time, not Atlantis-Tharsis. But all is pointing out to interpret this town as the successor of Atlantis-Tharsis named "Tartessos. Because Tartessos was the heir of the advantages of the position of Atlantis-Tharsis, its position cannot be far away. When you look at the area and are conscious of the Atlantis report of Platon, there is only the plain between the hill of Tartessos and the sea , which answers to all given details.
On the saddle of the mountain situated behind the hill
of Tartessos ( it is now called "Sierra de San Cristobal" and upon it
was found an extended necropole of the beginning of the Bronze Age until the
Tartessian time) there are big modern settings of sources of water and a little
bit north of it you can find several ditches and tunnels. The walls of it are
vertical and smooth hewed. The ceilings are lightly bended. In their old grey
state they are remembering the submarine boat bunkers of the second world war
or the bunkers of the "Atlantikwall" in
But there is no marking of planking and no jutting out rusted reinforcement of steel. These bunkers were knocked out of the rock and in it were probably stored the ships and stocks of the town situated in front of the mountain. The size of the tunnels would have been sufficient to store two boats of the Atlantean time side by side. Also the height is like that of a little house.
Above the saddle of the mountain there is at his highest point a flat place. The large grey socles on which the Parthenon of Athens would have place enough, prove themselves as water containers, hewn into the rock with a gigantic flat cover plate and conically to the top running supports like an Egyptian temple. The lightly rising roads between the separate plinths are planted with bushes and flowers like a temple road and to the south-east follows a forest of beautiful trees.
Again Platon enters into the mind, telling: The
At the edge of the mountain-top you are surprised by the marvelous panorama which is offered.
Really a view for Gods.
Far, far goes the look over the fertile country, the
Here becomes clear, why in all religions of nations
coming from the Atlantean culture, gods are living on a mythic mountain. This
is the mountain which gave the basic idea for the Olymp of the Greeks, the
Walhalla of the Germans , the Zikkurates of Mesopotamia and many other natural or artificially
And Platon must again be quoted because there is no better description of the place as this:
sea-coast, to the middle of the whole island was a plain,
which was more beautiful and fertile than any other".
On the highest point of the terrain on which had found only place a little temple is positioned today a little swimming pool with a decorative surrounding and a fantastic view to the plain and again comes Platon into mind :” So they used also the sources the cold and the warm flowing , which had an abundant flow of water and of which was each wonderful suitable for use, by surrounding them with buildings and at water thriving tree plantations, as with partly uncovered, partly covered bath rooms for warm bath in winter. From the flowing away water they conducted a part to the grove of Poseidon, to trees of all sort, thanks of the quality of the soil of divine beauty and height . But the other, by beside the bridges going channels, to the outer lying belts.
Also this thought finds its expression in this pool. And on the other side lies the grove of Poseidon . Not with such wonderful trees, as Platon says, but for men of today enough beautiful and impressing. The mystery of the position of Platon´s "Atlantis" seems therefore solved.
But this is only effective for the
"Atlantis" of the Bronze Age, described by Platon in his texts. But
now tells Platon, that the Egyptians dated the sinking of Atlantis in 9000
years before Solons visit in
And with that begins the muddle and for a lot of
people the chaos, that makes the report of Platon incredible. Because 9500 B.C.
there was no Bronze Age on earth. There were no settlements in
For the solution of this puzzle there is only one
possibility. The 9000 years, which told the Egyptian priest to the
"ignorant Greeks", were moon-years and not sun-years. In old times it
was usual in
This calculation to "moons" was usual in all
old cultures, as in
The natural disaster of 1250 B.C. caused a nearly 600
years lasting worsening of the climate , which was the cause of the
"migration of the sea-people" as the Egyptians called it.
The consequence of this migration was, that the whole
We will come later to this.
Beginning and Expansion of Atlantis
by Karl Juergen Hepke
To the todays level of
knowledge you can suppose, that
The immigration happened in times of glacial epochs
and warmer times between it , in changing rhythm of progression and regression
of ice since 30 000 B.C.. Much is speaking for the supposition, that these
immigrants founded a high culture at that early time. Rests of it are found
since 1968 at many places in the
About 10 000 B.C. , at the end of the last glacial
time, in North-Africa, Iberia and the South of France a culture of high level
lived. This you can see in paintings of that time in caves in
About 9500 B.C. there was a gigantic impact of an
asteroid in the northern
Since 7000 B.C. began the evolution of the Atlantean Empire II, which was later on described by Platon. With that begins the history of the western world of today. Men , who had survived at protected places or in swimming ships or chests, followed after some time of relaxation and reproduction the shrinking back ice.
So they reached, for the sea-level was at the
beginning 120 m lower than the level of today, with dry feet
For reason of the climatic and traffic-wise convenient position and the surrounding plains, which favoured a rich culture of farming and breeding, it developed to the centre of commerce and politic communication, when the Atlantic coast-land and one island after the other was flooded by the rising sea-level.
It is possible, but hardly to prove, that
extraterrestrial influences were involved at the selection of this place and
the following installation of an empire. To Platon and old Egyptean recordings
it was the case. Drawings in the caves of northern
It is also uncertain, if there was knowledge communicated from the nearly unknown culture of Atlantis I which was destroyed nearly completely in the catastrophe of 8500 B.C,. The knowledge of extraction and processing of metals, that was available since the beginning of the new founded state is pointing out to this.
What seems today to be a southern edge position was at
the time of its foundation an absolutely central position in the developing
empire. It is nearly certain, that the whole of North-Africa, included the
Although in all these areas scientific research is not very far advanced, that, what is today known, is sufficient for the proof of intensive rural life in North-Africa in the 6t, 5th and 4th millennium B.C.. With that you can conclude, that at that time North-Africa was an important part of the Atlantean settling area.
There are signs, that this rural use of the
You can suppose, that the ties with the Atlantean
Empire decreased more and more since that catastrophe , because the precondition
of rural life disappeared. To the West, in the
The population of the sinking islands moved in boats
To the East there was the wide space of the Mediterranean Sea, which was in the beginning only in the western part as far as the western coast of Italy, western coast of Sicilia, Malta and across to the northern coast of Africa to Cape Bon part of the Atlantean settling and with that part of the later Atlantean Empire. More far to the East there was a kind of no man´s land, that passed over in the highland of Anatolia, in Canaan and Mesopotamia to the area of the next high-culture in the Iranean highlands and in the valley of the Indus. This position of the high-cultures corresponded with the tradition of division of earth to different extraterrestrial high-cultures.
According to finds, which were made at the Atlantic
Because the order of the state contained a good working system of laws, a structure of classes of the society, an acknowledged, hereditary monarchy with unlimited power of law and military, it is not thinkable, that men alone and out of nearly nothing, without any help, could create a perfectly operating state like this. Therefore you can think, as tradition in all old cultures tells, that there were Extraterrestrian helpers, who were maintained in the religion of the state as adorable and honourable beings and as appealed helper in difficult situations. In western science of today they are, following the ideas of the Greeks and the Romans, called "gods" and treated as not realistic because the common Christian religion knows only one god, whose existence is also often denied by several "nature-scientists".
From these regulations, received from "Gods", developed men, who had got the task of care and protection of the cult, were called "priests" and formed a class of their own, a code of conduct for men, which provided, that there was no violation of the divine order. There were created laws and religious rites. A centre group of priests and official persons kept the keeping of the new norms under surveillance. For made by man, they were often incomplete and bounded to improvement. In the run of time they were more and more completed ,to let no circumstance that could happen without a fitting law.
Naturally there were violations of the divine order, as of the laws made by man. Because death penalty was not in the intention of the gods , because it would have exterminated many precious men, who were needed for the improvement of the world, the usual and often imposed maximum penalty was the banishment from the family or stronger, the exile from the state.
This form of punishment you can find in all succession states included the "new" states without Atlantean tradition Greece and Rome, found its expression in the European Middle Age in excommunication by the pope and in banishment by the emperor and was still put in practice by the imperialistic states of the 18th and 19th century in form of exile to the colonies.
So it happened, that in hundreds and thousands of years at the edge of all culture states lived exiled groups of men. They joined , as far as they were not killed by them, the here living Barbarians, that means, men of Cro-Magnon race at the cultural level of the younger Stone Age, and formed own states. Example for these states was naturally, because there was no known alternative, their mother-state. But some of the laws and religious rites, with which they had got in conflict, were not further used and replaced by "better". Corresponding to the share of men with Atlantean education in the new states was their cultural influence and you can suppose, that, if there was no influence from the next culture, there was a steep cultural gradient outside the borders of the empire.
Due to the bad experiences which the exiled had made with their mother-state, there was in these new nations , stirred always by the exiled, an inner aversion against it. This aversion was strengthened, when the successful growing mother-state tried to expand into the own area. They had to go or to submit to the internal refused system, as far as the mother state was willing to accept the exiled again in its area.
This process of spreading happened at all culture states of the beginning. It was strong at states with big growth of population and according rate of spreading, if there was a large area into which it could expand. Especially useful for expansion were convenient routes. These routes could be navigable rivers, good passable coasts, steppes without big mountains. In contrast to that were brusque mountain ranges , deep forests, marches and deserts nearly insuperable obstacles. So it happened , that the Atlantean state could expand into the nowadays areas of France, Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Denmark, the Baltic countries, and over that into the plains of Russia and in the Mediterranean area as far as Tyrrhenia, Sardinia, South-Sicilia, South Italy, Crete and at last also Greece.
The only loose and often not good connection of the
edge states with the centre had in consequence , that after the cosmic
catastrophe of 1250 B.C. , in which the centre power in
At the construction of the new, Classical Greece the
new Greeks, which were composed from rests of Achaeens and Doric newcomers,
tried to find new ways of organisation of a state. They informed themselves in
Later on, there was in
The Atlantean Empire (12b,18)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
Already in 1776 Jacob Bryant published an encyclopedia of six volumes with the title:"Analysis of Ancient Mythology". In it he diverted the Trojanians from the Meropians, which he characterized as a proud nation of great imagination and called themselves the descendants of the "earthbounded giants". The Meropians were also called the "Atlanteans"- the presumed descendants of Atlas.
To Bryant , these Meropians-Atlanteans settled also in
the West as in the East." From that we notice, that either we do
scientific research in
Following the Bible (Jesaja 23) the ships of Tharsis,
their capital-town, went to
Together with results of excavations from Greece (Mykene, Tyrins), Ugarit and Crete, naming only the most important, this is also an information about the maritime supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean.
As we have
seen in other chapters, Atlantis I was founded about 5000 B.C., the time of the
beginning of the European "Neolithikum", possibly with the support of
an extraterrestrial culture. This culture gave high ability in extraction and
processing of metals and stones to the Atlantians. Stones were often worked out
in very large formats. (Megalithic constructions, walls of Zyklops)
As metals were won and crafted since nearly 3500 B.C.: Copper, tin, bronze, zinc, iron, gold, silver and today not farther used alloys as electron and an alloy from copper and white metals, which was called "mountain-ore", was very anticorrosive and "shined in the sun as fire".
The culture was initially founded as” Atlantis I „ at the edges and the islands of the old Atlantic before 10000 B.C. and moved after the impact of an asteroid, with following moving of the poles and by a change of climate caused rising of the sea level, to a country in which all these metals were available or easily obtainable at sea routes.
was the Iberian peninsula, its capital town was named Tharsis and was situated
in Andalusia 10 km from the sea on a hill in a plain. Iberia offered at that
time best conditions for the foundation of a culture like that.
It was practically an island at the edge of the Mediterranean area and formed a bridge between Africa and Europe. The sea trade between both areas was made by the sea ways round Iberia. To an observer of the earth with the view of an astronaut is this excellent quality of Iberia immediately visible. It is unique on earth.
Thanks of its geological structure, Iberia has well protection by mountain ranges to the Mediterranean, the North of Europe and Africa. Additional protection was given by water or marshlands in these regions. So it is comparable to a castle surrounded by water or moats. It was only well contactable from the West on the water way. Here was situated the large, fertile and climatic convenient plain of Andalusia, only open to the South-West, facing the in the beginning still existing islands of the Atlantic and the warm winds with rain from the sea.
But especially important were the deposits of nearly all important metal-ore in Iberia. The big, easily workable deposits of copper were situated in the northern mountain ranges of Andalusia, at the Rio Tinto and the mining place of today, Tharsis. They are convenient connected with the plain and the sea by short water ways. Also tin, gold, silver, iron, lead were found in Iberia and could be transported at the water way to Tharsis. Tin, which was needed in big quantities for the production of bronze could be transported at the sea way from North-West Portugal and the South of Britannia, Cornwall.
In the South of the large plain of Andalusia offered nature a bay, protected by a spit of land with the mouth of a river and at it , in good distance from the sea, a hill for the foundation of a town . That behind the town was a mountain that protected it against the cold winds from North, supplied with good stones for buildings of houses and temples and had fountains for the water supply of the town, seems for men of today nearly too much of convenient meetings. But also Platon, before more than 2000 years, saw in it an extraordinary position, which could only exist with help of a god, Poseidon.
So here was founded the town, which is the oldest of the western world and was named "Tharsis" after its protecting god "Thar", who is "Poseidon" in Greek. Later on at Phoenician times it was called in Greek writings "Tartessos" and Platon, who had the knowledge of it from Egypt, named it by the Greek adaptation of the name , that was used in Egypt: "Atlantis". This Egypt name, which occurs in the correspondence of the kings of Egypt as "Alasija" means more the country than the town.
Itself was called in
the world of that early time only "the town" or "the port"
or "the market". And this name was used until now through all times.
Because what was newly built at Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Arabian times at
the mouth of the river, which is now called Guadalete, was named Puerto de
Menestheo, Amaria Alcanter and Santa Maria del Puerto, but occurs since it is
Spanish owned again in all writings with its very old name "The Port"
or in Spanish "El Puerto". For some time, when it was the main
harbour of the Spanish Armada, it was called "Puerto Real". In the
maps of today it is named "El Puerto de Santa Maria".
Here Columbus prepared his flag-ship the "Santa Maria" for the voyage across the Atlantic to America and here he shall have met the "anonymous seafarer", who told him his knowledge of the country far away in the West behind the ocean. This is even credible with the very old tradition of the port and its inhabitants.
Tharsis rose thanks of its convenient position and the knowledge of metal production and processing to the probably most signifying trading-place of the most important material for arms of that time, bronze. Without bronze there were no suitable arms and without that you were merciless delivered to enemies craving haul and power. The usual form of conduct of war was at that time, that the loser was killed till the last man, his property and sometimes also good looking women and girls were lead away and his towns and fields were totally devastated. This you can read in the Bible and in the "Ilias" of Homer. In the face of this situation it is understandable, that you could even at that time have dazzling business with the material for arms, bronze, indispensable for surviving.
The importance of Tharsis was due to its standing out position. In next proximity were situated the deposits of copper ore at the Rio Tinto, well connected with Tharsis by water ways. In the mountains of Andalusia there were also silver and gold. In Iberia was the only deposit of tin in the Mediterranean area and besides this Tharsis was able to block the way to the tin-mines of South-Britannia. With a suitable fleet of war-ships and branches in the eastern Mediterranean area , which could control the delivery from the mountains of Iran and by water-way of the Danube from Central Europe, it could take the tin- and with that the bronze monopoly of the western world of that time.
And Tharsis did so and grew more and more rich. For it was interested in an undisturbed commerce, which was the basis of its wealth, it built up large troops and a big fleet of (following Platon) 1200 war ships. With these 50-rowers, known for their speed, in slim construction with steep pulled up bow and sharp spur for ramming it controlled the whole Mediterranean, looked for undisturbed free commerce and gave a golden time period to the Mediterranean area, the Bronze Age.
This new archaeological period of time began in the Mediterranean Sea about 3000 B.C. with the first scientifically proved utilization of bronze in the Aegean Sea. Alloys of copper, which contained arsenic, were produced in Central Asia since several hundreds of years, but the discovery of tin-bronze, an alloy of copper and nearly 10% tin, with standing out metallurgical qualities as strength and resistance against corrosion, happened elsewhere. Many speaks in this point for Iberia, where all necessary raw materials and also the knowledge of production and processing of metal was available.
You can hardly imagine, that man of that day, without foreign help and instruction, had the idea to seek in the mountains for certain stones, from which he could win metals, which he did not know, under use of strong heat and mix with certain other materials. There must have been, at least in the beginning, an initial instruction. A further initial instruction was necessary to find that alloy, which had best possible technological qualities.
You must always keep in mind, that man of that time had no idea of chemistry and no metallurgical knowledge at all. He was therefore not able to win by consideration or aimed experiments a metal from its in nature occurring compounds, except, someone gave the exact recipe to him. He could not understand this recipe, but he could use it and by its use and the more or less good results he could learn further possible improvements.
With these facts it is obvious, that there must have been help from extraterrestrial side, except this knowledge of production and processing of metals came from the more than 10000 years lasting history of Atlantis. For 10000 years were possibly enough time for the without doubt technically talented Atlanteans to make such revolutionary discoveries.
If this help
came from gods, as the myths tell, or extraterrestrial higher developed
civilizations, as some think nowadays, or from the legendary with gods
cooperating ancestors of the Atlanteans, is still resting open. For an own
evolution of experience, the short time of maximal two thousand years for the
almost simultaneous introduction of metals into history was never sufficient.
This shows once more, that the so-called "exact-sciences", which for a long time thought of an evolution of knowledge in processing copper, bronze and iron and called after it whole time periods, sometimes get to their borders. In this case it is surely better, to listen to the myths of nearly all civilized nations, who attribute the information about processing of metals to a god of forge and mines.
An today unquestionable fact is, that about 3000 B.C. the utilization of gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and also iron was known. Copper and tin were with utilization of additives like antimony, which makes bronze stronger and earlier melting, worked out to bronze, which is outstanding well suited to produce arms and tools by casting and forging.
Also iron and its good qualities as material for arms was already known. But it was because of its susceptibility to corrosion and difficult processing not very popular. Besides this, the better workable and good looking bronze was sufficiently available and the Atlanteans, who earned much "money" with their bronze monopoly, were not very much interested in the development and spread of iron technology.
The fate of a main
place of modern archaeology, Troja, was especially connected with the Bronze
Age. In the Aegaen Sea bronze occurs first in the proximity of the Dardanelles,
shortly after Troja was founded by the Atlanteans for commerce and as strategic
The area of Troja and as well some of the islands near it had remarkable deposits of gold, silver, copper and also low quantities of tin.
Therefore they were important areas for the metal interest of the Atlanteans and were early seized by them. For example, the gold deposits of the island of Thasos were long before the foundation of Troja exploited by the Atlanteans (13). But the metal of fate for Troja was obviously bronze. Not only that the Atlantian and classical Troja and the Bronze Age began at the same time, it ended also simultaneously. Troja was obviously a production and trading center of tin-bronze and lost its importance after the fall of the Atlantian empire and its monopoly of bronze.
This important position of Troja explains much better the costly raid of the Greek to Troja, which found its way into literature as "The Trojanic War", than the robbery of "Bel Helene" which was probably invented by Homer or founded in the history of robbery of Greek women by the at Troja settling Atlantians, as Herodot tells.
For tin-bronze got to a scarce commodity in the Mediterranean area after the natural desaster of 1250 B.C., which lead to the destruction of Tharsis. This is written on tiles, which were found in Achaic-Greek palaces. Because bronze was an important material for arms and the Greek supposed big stocks of it at Troja, a raid for it seemed to be lucrative. As history showed, it was not as supposed. The inner quarrels of the achaic countries after disappearance of the Atlantean order and the following campaign of revenge of the "Sea-People" destroyed the Achaic Greek world and with it the whole culture.
With the rich copper deposits of Cyprus was inevitable given the expansion of the Atlantean area to the eastern Mediterranean. With it were very early seized the at the opposite mainland situated places with ports Tyrus, Ugarit and Sidon. Later on followed several smaller ones as Atlantean area of settlement and influence. The here growing population, which is called Kanaanean was therefore always more or less living in Atlantean way. The tin deposits in the mountains of Armenia and Iran arouse also early the interest of the Atlanteans and lead again and again to settlement of Atlantean people in this area.
To connect the
eastern Mediterranean with the western by safe sea-ways were founded branches
at Malta , Crete, Thera and at the south coast of Italy and Sicilia. Malta,
Crete and Thera came very soon completely under Atlantean influence and got the
first right branches with Atlantean culture.
Cyprus and Iberia wer the most important suppliers of copper in the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. The until today known mining areas for tin are Czechia, Portugal, Romania, Iberia, Armenia, Iran and Cornwall. Iberia and Cornwall were safe in Atlantean hands. Troja controlled the entrance to the Black Sea and with that possible supply coming from Romania and Czechia by Danube and Black Sea. With that Troja had a similar importance for the tin coming from the Danube as Tharsis for the tin coming from the Atlantic. The tin delivery from the mountains of Armenia and Iran were controlled by Kanaan. With these conditions there was no obstacle against the creating of an Atlantian bronze monopoly.
While the culture at
the Greek mainland, which was not contacted by the Atlantean aspiration to
power rested at a level not much impressing, was made at for the Atlantian
commerce important other places outstanding cultural and economic progress. So
the since long time existing and flowering rural community at Crete developed
in course of the 20th century B.C. by the Atlantian metal commerce to a society
of great luxury. It came to an until than not attained architecture with
elaborated open palaces, that reflected the princely rule.
The most famous palace, large 19000 m2 was created at Knossos, but also at Phaistos and Mallia were residences of the upper class nearly as famous.
Joined with these palaces were gigantic storage complexes for oil, cereal and wine and it is probable, that Crete was at that time the arsenal of the land- and seaforces , which were stationed in the eastern Mediterranean.
At all these places had been important settlements before, which were now favoured by the economic upswing, so that some old established family and also some newcomer, coming with commerce into the country, got a high degree of prosperity.
The palaces were
excellent arranged structures with a rectangular central courtyard and detached
areas for official and familiar life, for trade and religious performances and
stocks. Masterful artists decorated the palaces with marvellous frescos which
interpreted the Minoan and Atlantean lifestyle.
The enormous performances of forming art wer accompanied by raising political power and increasing wealth. Also outside of the palaces was the standard of living high. This we can see in urban waste water systems and streets plastered with cobblestones.
Although the Minoan
culture at Crete was on no account monotonous or uniform, the style of life
seems not to be changed in the run of time. The reason for this stability of
culture and of religious customs in all states of the Atlantean world is
probably to find in the fact, that religion and culture were no own production
in big parts. They were given to the Atlanteans at the foundation of their
state by their ancestors and at least by an extraterrestrial High-Culture. The
Atlantians were always conscious of that and therefore nobody risked to change
anything of it.
If the base of Crete was used in the about 2000 B.C. beginning activities of conquest and settlement of Atlantean groups in the eastern Mediterranean area, is not known. But there was certainly a bigger war quarrel at that time. The report, that found Solon in Egypt told of a campaign of Atlanteans which should subjugate, following the opinion of the Egyptians, the whole eastern Mediterranean. But it failed, because of the enraged resistance of the Greeks, especially the Athenians.
The campaign of the Hyksos at Egypt about 1780 B.C., which lead to a conquest and an 130 years lasting foreign rule over the Mediterranean part of Egypt could have been the historically known effect of this war to Egypt. The "Hyksos" were called in Egypt "chiefs of the foreign countries" and imported a new technic of battle: Horses with chariots. A technic, which was typical for Atlantean forces (see Platon).
For the Hyksos were obviously task forces operating under "chiefs" without a central leader, their action is typical for the at that time by the Atlanteans used method of spreading, which was not supported by the central power of Tharsis. Also in other Asian states we can see, that they operated there in the same style.
After the eruption of the volcano at Thera about 1650 B.C. became wide agriculturally used areas of Crete infertile by salinization of the soil by the "Tsunami" (sea-wave) and the poisonous rain of volcano-ashes produced by the eruption. For the base of Atlantean life was always an excellent organized agriculture and cattle breeding, Crete lost its importance.
Certainly not without armed force was therefore conquered the southern part of Greece and became the country of the "Achaeans". This armed penetration into a country, which was already used by others enforced the animosity of the Greeks against the Atlanteans. This lead later to the war of Troja and much later to the hundreds of years lasting quarrels between Greece and the Atlantean succession states Phoenicia and Carthage.
The most important
foundations of the Atlanteans in Greece were Mykene and
. Mykene und Tyrins
Besides that, there was a number of towns in which metal working and production of ceramic reached a high level.
Although they belonged to the Atlantean empire at its mighty times, there was probably a certain opposition. A main cause of offence was certainly the dominance of the Atlantean branch Troja, which controlled the commerce of metals and gave the base of the Atlantean fleet which controlled the Aegaean Sea.
But this control of their economical and political activities, which was naturally combined with certain charges, pleased not much the Achaeans, who liked their freedom and their wealth and beneath the surface, which was kept quiet by Atlantean control, this was making seethe.
It is necessary to see, that the majority of the Achaean kings and princes had emigrated from the Atlantean central state to live more independent at Greece. Some of them were even exiled because of their unruliness. Now they had again the yoke in the neck, which was probably not so pressing as in the centre, but enough pressing to induce some and the other to go East to Anatolia, Kanaan or to the mountains of Armenia or Iran, where he could still make his luck in independence.
The Minoic and also the following Achaic wealth had developed from a carefully structured, culturally strengthened and highly specialized society with reliable relations of commerce. The raw materials as the manufactured products were transported over sea and political private enterprises or even revolutions as disruptions of the commerce by private operations had possibly caused a domino-effect with dramatic consequences for the whole Atlantean economy.
This was very good known at the Atlantean centre and with their strong and fast fleet they took care, that every possible troublemaker was quickly brought back to common sense. There was not much space in this stable system for the private initiative of chiefs or princes.
The fleet that guaranteed order was supported by a number of ports which were later, when times got more agitated, transformed into strong fortresses. In this number were certainly Malta, Troja and Tyrus. In addition there were fortified places of commerce where the local element was well represented as Tyrins, Ugarit, Sidon and other primary at the Greek and Phoenician coast situated places.
Recordings which were found in Hattusa are telling of efforts to set also foot at the coast of Asia Minor at Milet. The here resident Karers and later on the Hittites prevented such attempts. On the other hand was Cyprus as principal supplier of copper for bronze as long in Atlantean and later on in Phoenician hand till the classical strengthened Greece took it away from them.
Atlantis, Beginning of the Metal Age
by Karl Juergen Hepke
After the conquest of
But there were not only precious metals what
The costly built roman town Munigua at the southern edge of Sierra Morena, which had a terraced sanctuary, forum, temple, thermes and a necropolis with mausoleum and can therefore be called a signifying and prosperous town, is built in wide areas upon and with slag. The enormous quantity of slag shows nearly unambiguously the extraction of copper from combined copper-iron ore, long before the Romans built their town upon the hills of slag. The partly very high content of iron in the slag shows, that the producer was not interested in extraction of it, but in the extraction of copper. Iron was only a by-product at that time.
The wealth of the roman town seems to show, that in
combination with copper and iron ore there were also precious metals and
primary gold in the deposits. The Romans were probably more interested in this,
in the time of roman emperors highly estimated precious metal, than in copper.
They used iron for their weapons and this iron came from
The slag upon which Munigua was built and which also can be found at other ore deposits of Sierra Morena, are rests of the copper production from sulphureous copper compounds as copper-sulphide and copper-pyrite. From these ores, which are bearing in the deposits of Sierra Morena also iron-sulphide and iron-oxide, you can win metallic copper by heating. This is done by partial oxidation and accumulation by removal of liquid phases. It is necessary, to separate the sulphide-melt or the molten metal from the molten rock. This happens at temperatures beneath 1400°C. To reach this temperature you must have charcoal and a strengthened air stream in a fire resisting, with clay built heater. Surcharge to the ore-coal mix in form of calcium-oxide (CaO) , salt (NaCl), ashes of charcoal,and the aluminium -oxyde coming from the clay lining of the heater gives the composition and the temperature of solidification of the slag. It is, following the parts of the compounds between 1100° and 1000°C. With luck you can reach 900°C.
The metallic product is a copper that contains about 4,5% iron in eutectic structure. At the other side contains the here produced iron about 10% copper, also in eutectic structure. The parts in reality are often two times that of theory.
At the height time of the town of
Over that the whole surrounding area of the Sierra
Morena is marked by places of ore-mining and metal production.
6 km north-west: Cerro de las Minillas (iron ?). In the southern slag-heap were found fragments of "Roman" transport and stock containers.
2 km west: Pilar de la Pepa ( iron ?). In rests of buildings found bricks are corresponding those of the terrace-sanctuary of Munigua.
400 m distance: Pilar de las Golondrias. Old place of metal production and rests of "antique"-constructions.
14 km north: El Pedroso and El Acebucal. Three places with rests of production.
30 km north: Cerro del Hierro. Iron mining still in 20th century. With that the until 50 m deep antique mines were destroyed. Finds out of "Roman" time: Tools and lamp of terracotta show the early use.
4 km south of Cierro del Hiero, El Escorial: At both sides of a creek were found extended areas of slags and rests of production heaters.
Setefilla-Mesa del Almendra, north-east of Lora del
To these, as an example listed places, which were examined archaeologically and metallurgically because they are in use no more, follow to the west the until now producing rich deposits of copper ore at the Rio Tinto and at Tharsis (the old name was used for this modernized mining place). Between these old and new places are many partly given up mining places with characterizing names in connection with "Minas" or "Minillas".
The big mining places of copper ore at the Rio Tinto
and Tharsis are today owned by British joint-stock companies and are connected by
railway-lines with the docks at
The production of copper was done also here by
roasting the sulphide ore. Some ores, for example those of Pilar de la Pepa are
polymetalic. So also silver and gold can be won. This kind of copper and silver
production is valid for the whole range of pyrite , situated west of
But copper, gold and silver were only one side of the Atlantean wealth. The other side was that of tin which is needed for the production of bronze. Until now there is no information about tin and lead winning in Sierra Morena.
The tin for the production of bronze came already at
that time from the rich deposits in the North-West of Iberia, from Galizia and
to South following Portuguese provinces. In the mountain range which goes from
The mines are here situated in the valleys of little
rivers, which flow to main rivers flowing into the
The large number of megatihic stones and dolmen in
this about 150 km large coast line proves, that the Atlantean coast-culture has
early seized it. The Bronze Age of Atlantis-Andaluz could begin, when shipping
was enough developed for commerce along the coast without big problems. The
voyage of 900 km from Galizia to
From old Greek reports is known, that the southern
From the historical dates of the
Following the previous knowledge these raisins were:
But back to the metal. The production of tin from ore is much easier than that of copper. Tin needs only temperatures about 500°C, that you can reach in a good fire of wood. Who knows the copper technology, has no problem with that of tin. Similar it looks with the bronze technology. Tin lowers the melting point of copper, that you can cast bronze much easier than copper. If the copper contains iron or arsen, as naturally given by the ores from Sierra Morena, the strength of the tin-bronze is additionally raised. This gives a material for arms, superior to other tin-bronzes.
The Atlantians had so with the natural ore deposits of
their country the means in hand to rise to the leading military power of that
time. As the recent insights in history show, they have made the most of it and
reached a leading position at the coasts of
It is not surprising, that men, who reached a technological leadership like that to the rest of known mankind, were proud of it. They felt being favoured by their Gods and were it, if you believe in that. Being proud of that leaded inevitable to an arrogance and a feeling of superiority to other men.
You could say, the development and mastery of the technology of metals, which was "High Tech" at all times, gave and gives still now reason for the claim of a leading position by the nations, that have their origin in Atlantis. These may be the Carthageans, Romans, Spaniards, French, English, Germans or now the mix up of all them, the North Americans, to name only the most conspicuous.
In the face of its proved ability to snatch the secrets from metals and its alloys, it is not surprising that the Atlanteans and their following nations had a particular liking of these new materials and its processing. Still now we are amazed when we see and can understand by which talent, which intelligence and which craftsmanship still than was worked on gold, silver, bronze and iron.
Naturally, there remained only a little bit of that than created metal works of art. Here will be shown only a selection of some phases. Naming the right date of production is often for science a real problem, because good works of art are often used for hundreds of years.