~$Book 4.doc Book 4
Canaan, an Early Country of Atlantean Tradition (7)(23)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
Those , who speak to the tree "you are my father" and to the stone "you have given me birth" (prophet Jeremias) are the old people of Canaan, the descendants of Atlantis, the later Phoenicians, the inhabitants of Tyrus and Sidon and founders of Carthage and Carthagena, their "New Capitals". After their way around the whole Mediterranean their circle of life is here closing with the reoccupation of their native country Iberia, which was initially given to them by their Gods.
This happened finally after they had left their marks with their religion, their culture and civilization in the whole Mediterranean and big parts of Near Asia. They are also children of the people of the Atlantean Empire of Europe, related to the people of North Europe, who will follow them later as "sea-people" and cause with it the "Doric Migration" in the Mediterranean and the "Arian" and "Aramaean Migration" in Asia.
Like Egypt is also Canaan one of the first areas which was cultivated by Atlantis, possibly as it had still an extraterrestrial management. This could have been the time, when the centre of conveying of culture was still in North Africa. After Canaanean myths this happened after the natural disaster of 8500 B.C., when the primeval fathers of Canaan as surviving men of Atlantis I were thrown at the beach of Canaan by the waves and found protection in the caves of the holy mountain of Carmel.
After this, Canaan was settled like West Europe from the beginning of present history. To that are pointing out the historical monuments of the faraway Canaanean past as the fields of dolmen on the upper plains of the East Jordan and at Hebron. About their time of origin are until now quarrelling the experts. But all is pointing out, that they come from the beginning time of Atlantis II like the megalithic monuments of West Europe and this is here the time of 7000 to 6000 B.C.
This opinion is represented by progressive thinking searchers of prehistoric times who astonishingly come nearly all from the USA. In Europe is happening nearly nothing in this aspect, although it should be nearer to these thoughts by its origin. Here one live still in preference of ideas of history out of the 19.th century.
The American searcher of Palestine W.F.Albright is thinking, that these graves, erected like the Nordic and West European graves of big stones in form of houses and corridors, can be dated to the sixth and fourth millennium B.C.. To the dolmens are often belonging rows of erected stones, so called "menhirs" and stone circles, which are like some cyclopic fortifications, possibly belonging to these megalithic buildings, built of big blocks.
Certain is however until now, that these megalithic buildings are in Palestine as in Europe very old, just as the adoration of a God in a conical stone which is mentioned in very old reports.
In the middle of the fifth millennium copper was known in Canaan. In the valley of Yarmuk was discovered a culture which possibly had big influence to the early cultures of the East Mediterranean area, with its ceramic ornamented with fishbone pattern and small works of art from pebble, basalt and limestone of partly naturalistic partly schematic female figures. These observations are pointing out to the idea, that the origin of people of Canaan, similar to those of Catal Hueyuek and those of Iberia was in Atlantis
Around 2000 B.C. when the expansion of Atlantis II had its first high point, was the coast of Canaan one of the most important regions for Atlantean commerce. Atlantean ships brought wood, cereals, good smelling resins and oils, objects of luxury and jewellery as the famous purple material, the colour for which was won at the Syrian coast from the rotten flesh of the murex shell, perfume and even exotic animals to Ugarit, Sidon and Tyrus. From there this valuable merchandise was brought by overland routes or by Atlantean ships to Egypt, Greece, Crete or Tharsis , as the place of trans shipment to the area of the North Atlantic and to the African coast of the Atlantic.
The at Ugarit found texts show, that Canaan at its part delivered special wood, named >urkarinnu< , copper from Cyprus, devices and weapons of bronze, in the fabrication of which were especially skilled the Atlantean people who had settled in the metal regions of Anatolia and in the North of Iran. To that came horses from Asia Minor. Egypt, which had become a granary delivered big quantities of cereals for the supply of the inhabitants of towns.
Much altered, when caused by the cosmic catastrophe of 1250 B.C. the centre of the Atlantean Empire got lost and the waves of the sea-people flooded in the following decades Phoenicia and Syria. The fate of the 3000 years old Ugarit got now accomplished. It was first conquered by the sea-people and used for further operations. When Egypt had stopped the avalanche of people and defeated them, after their dates, in a big battle, began also king Tiglatpileser I of Assyria a campaign against the penetrated sea-people and destroyed completely Ugarit, which had been occupied by the enemy.
The, from all catastrophes spared, by cyclopic walls strongly fortified, at an island in front of the coast lying and with that nearly impregnable Tyrus could about 1000 B.C. undisturbed take the maritime supremacy in the Mediterranean area. It restored the traditional contacts to the kingdom of Tharsis, which had in the meantime recovered a little from the natural catastrophe, but came never back to old power because of partly destruction of the country and emigration of large parts of the population.
The reconstructed Tharsis was now called in the Greek talking area Tartessos and had little common with the centre of power and culture Tharsis-Atlantis of the past, although in this "El Dorado" of antiquity again joined the agricultural wealth of Andalusia that of valuable ores, won in the ground of Iberia or transported along its coasts from the coasts of the Atlantic in North and South.(7)
The unchanged hospitable kings of the country gave a branch in Gades to the related Phoenicians. At this place, the later Cadiz, was adored in Canaanean rite still in the time of the Romans the Tyrian God of the town, Melkart, whom the Greek identified with their Herakles. The restored contact with Tharsis and the in the West situated regions of the former Atlantean Empire was , seen in commercial sight, just as important as later the occupation of India in the 18.th and 19.th century for Great-Britain. (7)
To make safe the contact in the now restless becoming times was installed or restored a net of intermediate stops, fortifications and places for landing. A regular commerce with Tartessos made necessary the control over the entire coast of North Africa if one took not the dangerous way by the open sea to the South of Iberia by Sicilia, Sardinia and the Balears or the longer way along the coasts of Italy and South France. To protect the middle route ,the Phoenicians won again the control of the old regions of influence of the Atlantean Empire, The East of Sicilia, the coast of Sardinia and the Balears. Their preferred and most jealous guarded way was that along the coast of North Africa.(7)
After the wildly moved time of the invasion of the sea-people, recovered the Phoenician towns relatively quick and got a new blooming. Liberated by the invasion of the related sea-people from the foreign rule of Egypt and thanks of the increase of well educated population of Atlantean origin Phoenicia reached its high point of power of commerce and of the sea at the turn of the millennium.
The former Crete-Achaic competitor had vanished by the Doric invasion or by inner conflicts, and Tharsis itself, weakened by loss of population and devastation of large areas, recovered never from the consequences of the natural catastrophe.
Tyrus enjoyed its golden age lasting nearly two hundred years. Its fleets made the long voyages and revived everywhere in the Mediterranean the old branches and founded new colonies. From Cyprus to Iberia were found Phoenician places of production and commerce. Also Carthage was founded in this time.
The new Punic nation at the African coast receives the experiences of two thousand years, the varied traditions, the talent of commerce and the entrepreneurial spirit of the mother country for its way. It administers and accomplishes the heir of Phoenicia , when this looses gradually its independent existence under the rule of Assyria and Persia.
Tyrus and Sidon, the two main places of Phoenician power, had to battle with Assyria at 720, 701, and 678 B.C.. Sidon was occupied, destroyed and reconstructed. When Assyria at 612 B.C. was beaten by the united Persia and Babylon, Phoenicia tries to turn again to Egypt, but Babylon was not willing, to give up the important coast region.
After Babylon follows Persia as supreme authority. Sidon won again some importance, became main base of the Persian fleet and for some time sit of the government. But that does not prevent that there are again and again revolts against Persia. In 346 was plundered the palace of the king of Persia. Artaxerxes marched for that against Phoenicia. Sidon got sacked and 40 000 inhabitants were killed with their king.
When in 333 B.C. the army of Persia was crushingly defeated by Alexander the Phoenician towns except Tyrus opened their gates. Alexander besieged Tyrus for seven months, built a dam and shut it up completely with help of the Cyprian fleet. After the conquest, which was after old reports only possible by help of "flying shields", today called " UFOs", which brought the invincible cyclopic walls to collapse with their beams of energy, he exterminated the inhabitants by fire and sword.
The dam of Alexander is still existing as a sign of the sinking of the town. Today it is silted up and the island of Tyrus, which was in some aspect the successor of the famous island of Atlantis is toughly connected with the land.
For three thousands of years Canaanean people fulfilled the task of mediator of continents. Their being was varied as their ethnic composition and the streams of culture which had passed Canaan. But in their religious ideas, founded on Atlantean basis, which were a basic substance of their life and to which were subordinated all manifestations of their existence, this in other aspect so movable people staid peculiar conservative.(7)
Also in this nation was shown, as before in Crete and later on in Carthage and Etruria, that people were sure in believe in their Gods by own experience, handed down by tradition, and they were not willing to distance themselves only a little from this believe. Still in historic times their religion rose up into the clarified world of the Greek as a strange piece from primeval times and no bridge exists from Canaanean cults to the monotheism of the Hebrews.(7)
This proves , more than all other, the affiliation of Canaanean people to the primeval nation of Atlantis and to the directly from their gods received lessons and laws. One felt as nation "coming from Gods and giants" and stuck to that until the in comparison without tradition living people as Greek, Roman, Jew, Christian or Moslem, who stood uncomprehending or even hostile to this old tradition, had killed the last stubborn "barbar" or "heath" or forced him to deny his religion
Carthage und Etruria, last Countries of
Atlantean Tradition (23)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The Etruscans and Carthageans, these two nations coming from the same roots - Phoenicia and Atlantis - saw quickly, that their cooperation against the Greek was in common interest. The united fleets of Carthage and Etruria prevented in 536 B.C. the conquest of Corse by the Greek of Marseille. After that, they formed a durable alliance in which the zones of interest were exactly defined. The Etruscans were at that time at the high point of their power and had nearly joined together Italy from the Alps to Campania.
The alliance between Etruria and Carthage was accomplished by economical and cultural relations. In Carthage this is proved by digging up of Etruscan statues, ceramic and several inscriptions in Thyrrhenean language. Especially a statue sarcophagus in Carthage finds its exact counterpart in Tarquinia.
This points out to similarity in the believe of life after death and gives an additionally information about the common root in Atlantis.
Also Phoenicia, the third in the alliance of states with Atlantean tradition, defended itself against the all the time noticeable extension of the Greek. The big battle between the empire of Persia and the Hellenes is to large parts attribute to the machinations of Phoenicia, which wished to eliminate its dangerous growing competitor.
In Cyprus the Phoeniceans ,from their settlements in the East ,began to force back the Greek . In the whole region of the West, Carthage is at the front of the battle. At first in Sicilia, where it has to give up its branches of the East coast, but can extend the position in the West with help of the Elymes. Similar it happens in Lybia, where it cannot prevent the Greek Dorer from conquest of the Cyrenaica, but finishes their advance to the West at the underneath edge of the Gulf of Syrte.
Although the seafaring and commerce practising Phoeniceans as successors of Atlantis did not like warring from their nature, they had to build up a military power. They showed in that a personal effort and a hardness which amazed even the Greek. Because the Greek answered with same methods to the committed cruelties, arouse between both nations a murderous hate.
With the nearly simultaneous loss of the battle of Himera in Sicilia and Salamis in Greece in the year 481 B.C. got worse in dramatic manner the situation of the Phoenicean side. In Himera were lost , according to Greek information, for the Puneans several hundreds of ships, nearly 38 000 warriors, 2700 kg of gold and a reparation for the war of 2000 talents of silver.
In Salamis lost the Phoeniceans, who were the heart of the Persian fleet and had the reputation to be the best seamen of the Persean empire, 300 ships, which formed the right wing and were shattered at the rocky reefs of Psytalia. In 468 B.C. followed the catastrophe of Eurymedon in which Kimon of Athens captured the whole Phoenicean squadron of 80 ships. This opened for the Greek fleet the way to Cyprus , from where it could easily block the Phoenicean coast. Eight years later it got still worse, when the Greek, after an Egyptean revolt against the Perseans, gained control of the mouth of the Nile.
At the same time collapsed also the empire of the allied Etruscans. Already since 510 B.C. they had lost control over Latium to Rome. In 474 destroyed Syrakus and Cumae the Thyrrhenean fleet. Campania was isolated and got soon prey of the Samnites.
Only one generation had been sufficient to destroy the big coalition, the head of which was Carthage. The real area of its rule was although not concerned. Still the Greek did not risk to penetrate into the region of Sardinia or the Iberian or West-African coast stripe. But the Lybians, who were defeated and had renounced tribute, took again their weapons and could only be calmed by recovery of the payment of tribute.
The quick insight in the danger and its hidden reasons and the instigation of wise defence reactions by the leading circles of Carthage, showed again their political astuteness and high intelligence. Not less considerable is the energy for the carrying out of plans and the hardness, with which were imposed and carried the necessary burdens.
As first consequence of the chain of defeats the existent powerful ruling dynasty of Magonids was removed and replaced by a tribunal of 100 judges elected from the senate. The most signifying persons of the dynasty were banished. The 100 were supported by committees of five members, coming from an additional selection. These committees got probably in the course of time a large part of the authorization of the general meeting.
The military leaders had to account to the tribunal after each war and several cases are known, in which military leaders fell in disgrace, because they were not successful in their actions. As further slashing measure can be regarded the evident introduction of import restrictions for Greek products. In the graves from the 5th and 6th century are nearly completely missing burial gifts of foreign origin.
The Carthagean government had obviously realized that the foreign trade took away from the country valuable raw materials and metals for import of objects of luxury without practical use. Therefore the trade relations were abruptly cut and only some Greek objects came into the country through the allied in Sicilia. Obviously wilful was also relinquished to mint own coins. So valuable metal was spared and additionally complicated the commerce with the Greek, for they insisted in payment in cash.
For ships brought not further cereals and oil, these had to be produced in the own country. The until than neglected hinterland became developed and the Lybians forced to pass over from extensive meadow economy to intensive farming of the soil. The ground for that had conquered the last representatives of the exiled dynasty of Magonids. It comprised probably the biggest part of Tunesia of today, at any rate were contained the peninsula of Cape Bon, the plains at the lower Medjerdal and the hilly country of Sahel, as the most fertile parts of the country.
There was lost no time to make them usable. Experienced Punic agronomists defined the methods of culture , best fitting to the soil. One of them, Magon, was even at Romans and Greeks respected as master of his stuff. His works were, as only Punic literature, translated into Latin.
Here was shown once more, which knowledge the descendants of Atlantis had still to their disposal. It enabled them to make a "Garden Eden" out of a desolate stripe of steppe. This was later on, after the conquest by the Romans, the granary of Rome for a long time.
When at the beginning of the 4th century B.C. the warriors of Agathokles after their landing at Cape Bon marched towards Carthage, they were surprised of the fertility of the fields with grapes, olive trees and fruit trees. Really this region is especially suitable for culture of trees. In contrast to that the plains of the inner country are more suited to cultivation of cereals.
Hand in hand with the development of the hinterland were made efforts for the widening of the colonial empire. There is agreement in the dating of the most famous expedition to the 5th century. Himilkon got along the coasts of Iberia and Gallia at least to the Cape Finisterre and visited the island Ouessant, which was important as place of trans shipment of tin from Cornwall.
The most courageous and signifying expedition however was made in southern direction. Herodotus tells that under the pharaoh Nechao (609/594) a Phoenicean expedition, supported by the pharaoh, sailed round the whole of Africa in three years. Here came the initiative not from Carthage, but one can suppose that the expedition was made with its approval and support.
In a further expedition, that took place nearly 450 B.C. the Carthageans tried to get back the former Atlantean branches of the West. Their faraway aim was, however, the coast of Senegal, which was known as country of gold. They tried also the way through the desert and it is supposed, that some reached it several times. The hunger for gold of Carthage is not explained with the desire for luxury and wealth, for it made efforts to collect capital to meet the inevitable coming quarrel with the Greek with good arms.
Already in the 6th century the Magonids had used extensively mercenaries in their campaign in Sicilia. Also the after them ruling oligarchy changed not this policy. They were carefully aware to treat the citizens of Phoenician origin most careful, because the Punic element of Carthage had no further increase by immigration. The subjugated, although courageous, but little civilized Lybians could only give aiding combat units, the loyalty of which was often not sure.
The heart of tactic of that time were the "Hoplites", heavy armed foot combat units, going in action in strict battle order. For this were primary suited professional soldiers. These could be recruited in good quality in the Mediterranean area, if one had money enough. So the efforts of Carthage strived for the creation of a treasure for war as big as possible, which could be used for payment of the army, for support of allied nations or for corruption of enemy politicians.
In 409 B.C. Carthage began to try to get free from the Greek embrace. The region of war was in the beginning again Sicilia, where Carthage had at first big success. Selinunt, Himera, and after them Agrigent and Gela were conquered and cruelly devastated. Than Dyonysos of Syrakus had also success. The chance of war changed than for 40 years. At the end Carthage kept only the country of the Elymes western of Selinunt.
In the following generation Syrakus was beating back. Agathokles of Syrakus landed 324 B.C. at Cape Bon, devastated the agricultural regions for supply of Carthage and surrounded the town for the first time. The action was a little bit too bold and ended in a catastrophe. Nevertheless Carthage was shocked. It felt abandoned by its Gods and the priests imposed an enormous sacrifice to the nobility. The noble children, which were until than spared by sacrifices of children of poor people, which were buyed from their parents by the nobles, were sacrificed in an autodafé to Molk, the Canaanitic God of death.
Such sacrifice of man was, although it belonged to the Atlantean and Canaanean tradition, practised only in the case of highest danger. Normally one was content with the sacrifice of animals. The resumption of sacrifice of men in this time shows, that Carthage had the feeling of highest trouble and hoped to calm its Gods by this slashing sacrifice and get help from them.
The Greek , who had once left the Atlantean tradition because of these cruel laws and were completely uncomprehending to them in that late time, regarded it as an act of barbarity and used it in propagandist manner to stir up opinion against the enemy.
The wall of intransigence and religious fanaticism, which had erected the oligarchy of Carthage against the Hellenism, crumbled gradually, also through these drastic measures, which had hit now also themselves. The military leaders began to fight against the oligarchy. There existed a plan to murder the whole senat on the occasion of a wedding. Also the exploited African mini states became increasingly restless and were waiting for an opportunity to strike against Carthage.
Nevertheless Carthage was not weakened in economic sight by this nearly hundred years lasting war. By the use of an army of mercenaries and the place of battle in Sicilia, the war was at first an economic problem. For this Carthage was prepared and had the possibility by exploitation of the hinterland and proceeds from the branches in the West, to pay the costs of war. Besides, the war was itself lucrative. The plundering of all big towns of Sicilia, except Syrakus, had piled up in the treasure houses of Carthago the wealth, which found Scipio there one and a half century later.
But there were bad news from the East of the Mediterranean. The last bastion of the Atlanteans in the East, the mother town of Carthage, Tyrus, had been conquered and destroyed by Alexander the Great in the year 332 B.C. after a siege of seven months. Alexander had announced, that he had the intention to attack Carthage in the next time. That prevented his early death, but the new, coming power of the Mediterranean, Rome, regarded the now becoming Hellenistic Carthage as serious competitor and worth prey, destroyed it after the three Punic wars and integrated its sphere of influence in the year 146 B.C. into the Roman Empire.
Also the Etruscans were now attacked again by Rome.
Volterra surrendered in 79 B.C. and after the "bellum perusinum" in
40 B.C. Etruria was declared by Rome to be the VII region of the empire. Some
years before, in 54 B.C., the priests of Etruria had announced the end of the
10th saeculum and with that the end of the Etruscan state.
With that, also the last European country with Atlantean culture had fallen prey to the new states striving to rule.
The knowledge about the sea routes of the Atlanteans, however, got lost , because themselves, like their successors the Phenician and Carthageans ,did all, to keep secret this knowledge to Greek and Roman. So it was, for example, forbidden to the Carthageans, by pain of death, to speak out the name of the island “Antilia”, - remembering to “Atlantis ”- , because the existence of this island should be kept as a secret. About the sea, western of Italy, which was for Greek ships for centuries a “no go area” were told the most horrific stories to hinder bold people to go there.
So reports Pausanias in his “Description of Greece” about the experiences of the Karean Euphemos the following (2a):” At a voyage to Italy he was driven by the wind into the “ utter sea”. There were much not settled islands, on others lived wild man. These islands were called “Satyrides” and the there living man had red hair and a penis, not less big then that of a horse. When they saw their visitors, they ran without a cry down to the ship and fell upon the women. In their fear, the seaman threw at least a foreign woman to the island, who was then violated by the wild men not only in usual manner, but also in all other possible.”
This and other similar stories failed not in its frightening effect and so was the knowledge of the Greek for the sea areas western of Italy practically like zero.
The Roman , who were anyway no nation of seafarers, were not better and were content with their shapeless and not very sea capable ships for a long time with coast shipping at their coasts, where they could reach the land, when the weather got worse.
Nevertheless there must be found something by intensive search after the knowledge of the Atlanteans in the archives of the Roman empire and the ruins of the destroyed towns of Tharsis, Tyrus and Carthage and that of Etruria. So, for example, the books carried off by the Romans in Carthage and Etruria, except an only work concerning farming, were never translated. But there is still the possibility that they are hidden in Roman archives. Also the at Crete found writings on tiles in "Linear A". preserved by fire, were not deciphered until now.
Because the Atlantean empire and its religion and
culture, as the considerable technical, political and economic knowledge is
forming the foundation of the culture of the West of today, it should be a task
for its states to search for these origins.
Possibly we can replace the "ex oriente lux", "from East came the Light", which forms the historical thinking of the West until now, by "ex occidente lux", "the light came from the West."
The Blossoming of the Atlantean Empire in Middle Europe,
the Bronze Age (18,30a)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The Bronze Age began in the area between Alps and North-Sea around 2300 B.C. First traces of weapons and tools or jewellery from the new alloy of copper and tin are found at the middle and upper Elbe and in the region of southern Germany. In these regions had been already extracting and processing of copper in the younger Neolithic and with that the basis for a progressive metal technology was given. From where the knowledge came, that with the addition of 10 % tin to the molten copper the processing and the quality of the product was considerably improved, is resting still open. For the region of western Europe it could have been developed at the Iberian peninsula, because here were copper and tin deposits well workable and connected with water ways. Also a progressive knowledge of metal extracting and of silver, copper and gold processing had here a longer tradition.
The knowledge of the production of bronze can have reached the middle and upper Elbe by the water way Atlantic, North-Sea, Elbe with the people of "bell-formed-ceramic" who practised far reaching commerce , as has been proved. To southern Germany came this knowledge probably by the way Aegaeis, Black Sea , Danube. This was also a way of spreading of knowledge and culture in the Neolithic.
If the knowledge of the new alloy in the Aegaeis came also from the West, Iberia, or from the East, the mountain regions of Iran, to Troja, can perhaps be cleared up by extensive metallurgical examination of first products of bronze in the Aegaeis, so far these are available. Until now one does only know, that the first alloys of copper with improved quality from the regions of Iran were alloys with Arsenic , which was a natural part of the here found ore. Also iron was a part of this ore, but was unwelcome and ended in the slag. But there were also deposits of tin in Iran and with that was given, as in Iberia, the precondition for the production of tin-bronze.
The first culture of bronze in middle Europe at the upper and middle Elbe is called "culture of Aunjetitz" and is dated for the time from 2300 to 1500 B.C. It developed from the here resident culture of "bell-formed-tumbler", which had already practised copper processing. Tin and copper came from the Erzgebirge and the oldest objects of with them produced bronze were found in Unetice ( in German "Aunjetitz") near Prag and published in 1910. This publishing gave the name to the culture.
By examination of numerous fields of graves in Middle-Germany much is known about the here resident Aunjetitz people. They were as descendants of the people of "bell-formed-tumbler" relatively tall. Men had in the middle 1,71 m in maximum 1,78 m. The most tall woman reached 1,66 m. The skulls of an at Soemmerda in Thuringia resident group were unusual long, very narrow and extremely high. The chin was higher than that of men of today. Men reached no long age, in average they died with 37 years, women with 35,8 years. Only 17,4 percent of man were older than 40 years, of women only 4,3 percent. The condition of their teeth was bad. Every fourth had tooth decay, 80 percent had beginning of paradontosis, which began often at youth. One woman had alterations at the skull, pointing out to a tumour. In this group were made three operations of the skull of which two were successful , discernible from traces of recovery.
The "Aunjetitz´s" wore clothes from woven material. There were found indications of looms and prints from cloth at rings of bronze. The typical needle for cloth was the "Cypriot Bow Needle" , which is known from Cyprus and Egypt. The needles are taken for local production but are an indication of far reaching cultural contacts in the Atlantean Empire. Traces of settlements are mainly found from the late time, from which houses and fortified and not fortified settlements on hills could be proved. The considerable big houses were erected with posts. They reached sizes of 27 m to 6 m. The fortified settlements lied predominantly at roads of far reaching commerce in front of mountain passes, at fords, forks or crossroads. Obviously was commerce controlled in style of castles . Other settlements were in the neighbourhood of rich deposits of ore near the surface. The distance of "castles" was between 15 and 35 Km. With preference they were erected at places where nature gave additional protection. So at mountain spurs and oxbows of rivers.
The "people of Aunjetitz" lived as the farmers of New Stone Age. They cultivated cereals as barley , emmer and single corn and grew cows, pigs, sheep and goats as domestic animals. Skeletons of horses were often found in the proximity of human burials. As ceramic was mainly produced crockery for daily use. A new product were so called "idols of bread", pieces of ceramic with insertions, which are now taken for stamps, objects of cult or weights for the loom. They are mainly found in countries of eastern middle Europe and in the whole region of the Danube.
The blossoming of bronze
production, when were manufactured big lots of it, was in the late time of the
Aunjetitz people about 1650 B.C. In this time you can speak of mass production
of standard articles. In possibly by dealers created depots in the soil were
found blades of daggers, rings for arm and leg, spirals of wire, axes of
different form and semicircular bended ingots of bronze in often numerous
numbers of pieces.
It is supposed that standard forms of axes and ingots from bronze were used as a sort of money in the normally practised commerce by exchange.
The ore for bronze came from the mountains of middle Germany, the Harz and its foothills, the wood of Thuringia, the Vogtland and the Erzgebirge. Possibly also from Alps and Carpathian Mountains. The bronze was cast in forms of clay as "lost-form" or in forms of metal, which could be used again.
Rich finds of depots were made in the district of Halle/Saale in Saxony-Anhalt. One suppose that this relates with the production of salt in that region. Salt was possibly paid with products of bronze as "money". The finds in this depots reached sometimes a weight of 100 Kg. Also the graves here were richly provided with burial gifts from bronze. In spite of the plentiful supply with bronze were further used the tools, known from the New Stone Age, of stone, bones and antlers. Out of the early stages are known daggers from flint, imported from northern Germany, which were mainly used for the cut up of meat. The partly poisonous products of corrosion of copper, bronze and lead-containing tin were hence known or one feared the detracting of taste caused by them.
A completely new form of
weapon was the "shafted dagger", which is called in South-Germany
"Atlantean Dagger". It has a long shaft of wood at which is fastened
like an axe by an eye in an angle of 90° a dagger in form of a sharp triangle
with a rib in the middle. In depictions at cliffs and stones in Scandinavia,
Italy and Germany the shaft is often very long and the dagger is presented like
a pennant. These shafted daggers are widespread in the whole area of the
Atlantean Empire, from Iberia to the Balkans and from Italy to Scandinavia, an
indication, that they had a big roll in the all joining cult.
Further proofs for the far
reaching cultural relationships are the reproduction of a Vaphio tumbler from
the culture of Mycenes found near Halberstadt in Saxony, a cup from Mycenes,
found near Celle in Lower Saxony and blue and green pearls of Fayance, also
from the region of Mycenes. In counter move in Mykene was found amber from the
Northgerman area. In a grave in the district of Delitzsch in Saxony were found
together with local jewellery from bronze and pearls of amber a little dagger
and a dagger-formed knife resembling finds in the Aegaeis.
For commerce over large distance were used carts with cows as draught animal. Horses were also bred. At the skull of a skeleton of a horse were found two tusks of a boar, which are taken for gags of a snaffle and are pointing out to the use of horses for riding.
From the richly found jewelry
from gold in the "graves of princes" in Saxony, Thuringia and Bohemia
one can conclude, that there was made much "money" with the
production and commerce of bronze and one can really speak of a "Golden
Also in other aspect were the funerals of the rich very lavish. In continuation of the custom of graves with big stones they were often buried in chests of stones made from hewed stone slabs. One did not shrink from reuse of slabs from older graves of the culture of big stones, which were partly covered with engraving. Over the chest of stone were piled up other stones and than all covered with a hill from earth. So it was the style of a progressive grave of big stones without the use of them. Normal people were buried in fields of graves. The position of the dead was the same in all graves. They lied on the side, head to the south, legs to the North, looking to the East to the rising sun. In late times of the culture when the wealth of princes had considerably grown were erected huts from hewn trunks and planks of oaks for them.
One in Soemmerda in Thuringia
found such grave was 3,5 m long, 1,5 m large and 1,3 m high. The oaks for the
beams were felled after 1940 B.C.. Above the hut was also here the hill of
stones and then the cover of earth, so that the hill had a height of 8,5 m and a
diameter of over 30 m. These grave hills can easily compete with the grave
hills out of the time of big stone graves. Another grave like this comes from
In the fields of graves in which were often found more than 100 graves, were already separated places for extended families. Predominantly was buried in pits of earth, but there are also examples of a planking with wood of the pit. Near Nordhausen in Thuringia were found burials of two ore three men, in which were the dead lied one over the other, partly clamped with their legs. Some suppose that this were lovers, even in death inseparable. A grave in which were buried twelve persons instead of the intended two is pointing out to warring events or a natural catastrophe in mining. Three of the dead had injuries of the skull caused by sharp stones or axes of bronze.
Similar to the people of
Aunjetitz was the development of culture in other groups of this time. The
Bronze Age began here later and it was not acquired such wealth. In these
groups men were mainly farmer and cattle breeder. Because they had no metal
production they looked for the manufacturing of ceramic and produced tools of
stone. Their objects of bronze were in the beginning imported. Later on they
had own production with acquired ingots of bronze or produced their own bronze.
In North Germany came into being about 2300 B.C. the cultural environments of the "Early Nordic Bronze Age" and the "Environment of Soegel-Wohlde" in the South-West of Bremen. A speciality of this environment was the first occurrence of swords from bronze in short form. These swords are known from Iberia. The Romans took them from there and called them "gladum". In Mecklenburg began the Bronze Age at 1800 B.C.. The here imported products were highly developed and so one found here the finest shafted daggers and axes and fine designed daggers. In the South of Germany developing groups or cultures of the Bronze Age were partly influenced by the culture of Aunjetitz, partly they had influence from the East by the Danube, partly they had a certain private life like the "Culture of Straubing." South-West Germany and Switzerland were influenced as in the New Stone Age by the Saone from France.
The Middle Bronze Age is usually counted from 1600 to 1300 B.C. .For reason of the now acquired knowledge it should be counted until 1250 B.C. because the Late Bronze Age, which has a quite other character, can than better be recognized. In the Middle Bronze Age all in middle Europe settling groups of people mastered the casting of bronze and that often with highest perfection.
The usual culture of burials was in this time from the East of France as far as the Carpathian Mountains in Hungary the burial of the dead in artificially erected hills. In the Mediterranean area and in the with it by the Atlantean Empire associated parts of middle Europe was this the time of highest blossoming of culture. A comparable level was in middle Europe not reached until 1200 A.C. In by Greece handed down history this time was called
"The Golden Age"
In this time reached the culture of the Bronze Age the whole area of North Germany, big parts of Poland, Denmark and South Sweden with excellent worked out tools, weapons and jewellery. An outstanding importance had as before the water way of the Elbe with its tributaries Moldau and Saale. Beneath it wins the Oder importance. People of this time are descendants of that, here living before. There is no considerable immigration or change of population. Sometimes women of one group married in another group which lived more distant than 100 km. This is shown by graves with unusual jewelry in rich furnished graves. A sign for peaceful communication and stable conditions. Obviously some princes searched their wife in other princely houses for care of political relations. But the increasing wealth had no influence to the quality of life because men lived not longer as before. Also the symptoms of illness changed not. Possibly has the steadily growing population prevented from an improvement of individual life.
Apart from bronze appears
increasing yellow gold with high content of silver as burial object. Also
ceramic is varied and creative designed and decorated. Obviously some artists
or schools give free run to fantasy. This is also valid for the design of
jewellery. New are needles with wheels, elaborate decorated hilts of swords and
golden "hats" in form of a cone with half-ball formed decoration at
the cone and a large brim. Their use is still unknown. They show the excellent
level of metal working of that time with the height of the cone of 31 cm and a
thickness of only 0,25 mm with decrease at the brim to 0,1 mm. One of these
hats was found in the land of Nuremberg in Bavaria, one near Ludwigshafen at
the Rhine and one near Poitiers in France. All come from the time between 1300
and 1200 B.C.
The long distance of the places of finds lets raise the thought that they were a sort of royal signs, like a crown, with which the king or main priest of that area made impression at celebrations. After other opinion was the hat the top of a post as symbol of the sun or a god. One of the recent theories means that the impressed signs are containing a secret calendar of the priests. Also the Hittits had similar symbols.
Another find of gold from the district of Rhine-Sieg is finding also parallels at different places of the Atlantean Empire. It is a big tumbler of gold containing nearly one liter and a weight of 220 g. Similar tumblers were found in Rillaton in England, Eschenz in the North of Switzerland and in the shaft-grave IV in Mykene.
The wealth of the group of Aunjetitz at the middle and upper Elbe corresponded to the wealth of the groups of Lueneburg and Stade at the lower Elbe. These groups had developed from groups of the Big Stone Age probably with immigration. The southern bank of the Elbe had obviously high strategic and traffic-wise importance. Here were the last foot hills of solid ground with connection to the country behind them and therefore here crossed the ways along the coast from South to North with the important water way of the Elbe, which connected the rich deposits of metal at the middle and upper Elbe with other countries of the Atlantean Empire. The people of Stade provided boats for transport across or along the Elbe and cow carts for the way to the South over land. The find of four wheels from bronze, which belonged once to chariots, shows that there was also a military basis protecting the ways of commerce.
The people of Stade buried
with preference in graves with chests of stones covered with hills of earth.
Some of these hill graves can still be seen at the rand of the hinterland in
higher position with best sight into the valley of the Elbe. Also in the
hinterland were higher situated places in the hilly country preferred places
for the building of hill graves. Often they are situated in the neighbourhood
of Big Stone Graves, for the building of which were often chosen similar
places. The same is valid for the to the South-East bordering group of
Lueneburg. In their prime time their country reached from the Elbe as far as
the district of Wildeshausen.
For both regions were important rand areas of the Atlantean Empire the far reaching culture is indicated in signifying finds. The structure of the country, which knows dry sandy soils as marshes and bogs, provided over that the at least partly conservation of perishable material as wood, leather and fabrics.
So there are known from the group of Lueneburg bonnets with wings from wool or leather, which were only worn by the female head of the family. They remember with their highly decorated fez-formed middle part, at which were sewed decorated wigs, reaching to the height of the chin, to the head decoration of the Pharaoh of Egypt. As outer clothing was worn by the women stiff bell-formed capes made from leather or felt with cut like a poncho. They were richly decorated with ornamentation from bronze. With it was worn fitting to the season a longer or shorter skirt. The short skirt allowed to show favourably whole sets of leg jewellery. Obviously there was also pinafore dress, primarily worn in summer. Corresponding to the custom, known from Crete, the bust rested than uncovered. Married women took needles, long to 30 cm, with a wheel formed decoration at one side, to pin together a wrap around scarf. Other decoration of women were scrutinized and ribbed collars and so-called "hanging-discs", which were probably carried at the belt. Collar, needle and hanging-disc were often with the same order of spirals and other decoration a corresponding set.
The clothing of men was also kept together by needles from bronze. But nearly without exception they were less decorated. Besides men wore a ring of bronze at both arms. As weapon men had axe and dagger, both from bronze or bow with quiver and dagger. The combination axe and bow is missing. One was either near or far fighter. From the different furnished graves one can clearly discern social differences. This finds its expression again in the size of the grave. In the later time important dead were buried in "houses of dead", which were sometimes burned with him . Over the ashes was than piled up the hill of burial. Mostly only one person was buried under a hill. But there were also graves of mother and child, man and wife or two men or even three or four persons beneath the same hill. Sometimes they were buried at the same time, sometimes one after the other.
A special kind of burial was discovered in the Lueneburg Heath and a small stripe along the lower Elbe. Here were built for individual female persons "houses of dead" which were open to all sides. They consisted of six to eight posts at the side and had a roof. the houses were burnt during or after the funeral and covered with a hill of earth. In these graves never was found the otherwise usual jewellery of woman. One suppose therefore, that they were not married. Before it is known, that young women and children were preferred as sacrifice it is possible that these "dead" were at first still alive and were sacrificed to the god of weather or the god of the Elbe in the case of thunderstorms or storm tides to calm him. 2500 years later the bishop of Bremen described this heathen custom that it was practised still than by the Vikings at Stockholm. In this case the victim was after his words raped by six men before it was killed. This can be a worsening slander as they were customary in this time in dealings with the customs of the "heathens".
Also the burial of died "at the same time" in the same grave can be taken as sacrifice of near relatives. One speaks here of the custom of "following death". As is known this custom was practised until our times in India as so called "burning of the widow" and was first forbidden in the time of British rule in India.
To means for sacrifices are also taken the often found stones with a groove. Here is a stone nearly one meter large provided with a surrounding groove several centimetres deep. This is often called groove of blood. With it are combined sacrifices of animals. But there were no bones found near these stones, only raised results of phosphate in the soil are pointing out to use of organic material near it. It is possible that these stones were only used as anchors on ships or as weight for a technical use.
In the region of the group of Stade were found several graves in which were buried noble fighters. Also with this is shown the strategic importance of this area. The graves contained rich burial gifts. A speciality are richly decorated razors and rests of a chair, which you could fold up, from wood and leather, richly ornamented with jewellery from bronze.
Similar chairs were found in Juetland and in the North-West of Mecklenburg. They are also known from the graves of pharaohs of Egypt. Frequent burial gifts in this region were swords. Men were usually buried not burnt. Above the grave was built a hill.
A special find from this area
is beside the already mentioned four wheels of chariots a stone with picture of
three human beings in peculiar posture. One has raised his hands as for praying
but for that unusually spread his fingers. The figure in the middle of the
group holds high raised an object as an axe or a shafted dagger, maybe as
ritual device. The right, turned away figure is carrying a not to identify
object in his wide extended hands.
Following the posture it offers a gift. Right and left of this figure are two deepened bowls. All figures are naked and have faces remembering to birds. The depiction has parallels in the paintings at rocks in North Africa. Faces remembering to birds are also found at the Narmer pallet in Egypt. There were many speculations about this picture. At times one saw in them the three gods of the Teutons which are mentioned by Caesar and Tacitus. Actually one could say that they are remembering to the extraterrestrials of Roswell.
A further speciality of
North-West Germany are the here found "stones of sun".
They are made from big field stones large 1m to 1m with a weight unto 5000 kg. The material is mostly red granite. At one side they are graded and bear unto 17 concentric deepened circles. Mostly they have a hole or deepening in the centre. About their meaning also nothing is known. Possibly they had a ritual purpose in the passed Big Stone Age or were a part of a grave which was destroyed in Christian times. The exactness of working can also point out to a stencil, used for the production of round objects from wood or metal, perhaps for wheels.
While jewellery in the area
South of the Elbe was mostly made from bronze is in the region North of the
Elbe, the so-called "land of amber" , often used gold for jewellery.
It is, as the bronze, often used as spiral of wire for the keeping of hair or as ring at the finger. Mostly this gold jewellery is worn by man. The gold is supposed to come from Ireland, but also the region of the Alps or Siebenbuergen can be its country of origin.
With the cosmic catastrophe of 1250 B.C. the until than constant growing culture in the area between North-Sea and Alps was changed dramatically. The approaching catastrophe which appeared as a second "sun" coming nearer and nearer, had firstly psychological effects. Men got into panic and tried to calm their gods with increasing sacrifices. Also the last remedy, the sacrifice of men was again and again tried, as one can see primary in caves. If the tail of the meteor also in Middle Europe caused burning of houses and forests is up to now not known. Probably the zone of this damage was more in the height of the Northern Mediterranean, the Alps and Southern Carpathian Mountains.
After the impact were also in Middle Europe big thunderstorms with terrible cloud bursts and constant rainfall. The coasts were additionally struck by flood waves of never seen power.
A large number of men lost its life by these thunderstorms and waves. Others, who had first saved their live in caves or higher positioned places, came soon in danger of fame because the biggest part of stocks and animals was destroyed or not reachable. So the in caves proved cannibalism, practised by the surviving must be understood as last desperate possibility to save the life.
Already the Praehistorians Pittioni and Kimmig detected that in the 13.th century B.C. began an enormous migration from the area of Middle Europe. This matched the sudden occurrence of burials in urns after the until than seldom burning of the dead. For both there was no logical explanation. Therefore came into being theories of nations of riders or with chariots coming from the East. They should have weakened the culture and had brought with them the burial in urns. None of these theories was finally accepted and the question is still open, if the explanation here given with a cosmic catastrophe at the coast of the Atlantic will close this gap.
That a considerable change had happened can be seen at the products from bronze in the now following time from 1200 B.C. until 800 B.C. which is called the "Late Bronze Age". These products were won to big parts by another melting of already existing bronze in form of ingots, broken weapons and tools. Nearly no new bronze came into the market. A sign, that the biggest part of production capacity and also the knowledge of the generation of bronze had disappeared. Also commerce lay down because of the low density of settlements. By the worsening of climate, which followed the catastrophe and lasted until nearly 600 years there were crop failures and famines.
Because there was no more a centralized power robberies of the neighbour, who was supposed to have still stocks, were usual. At the route Rhine-Main-Danube passed foreign folks from Iberia, England and France through the country and brought further insecurity. Their way is documented by finds of swords and helmets of Western origin.
The consequence was, that many of the anyhow destroyed settlements were given up and new ones were erected on heavily accessible heights with strong fortification. Animals were not possible in these small settlements in the case of a siege, therefore one laid emphasis of production to storable cereals, which gave best protection against famines. The extravagant burials of the past were cause of lack of free work capacity no more possible and were therefore made only in special cases. The now usual burial was burning of the dead and interment in almost standardized urns.
One had come to this form of burial already by the catastrophe, for there were so many dead in a short time, that it was impossible to bury them after the old rite. So, there is at the mouth of the Altmuehl into the Danube a field of urns with more than 1000 burials. It shows the high standard of the culture, that these dead, which were probably direct victims of the catastrophe, were not buried in mass graves.
While bronze lost its importance because the lack of new production more and better ceramic was produced. Tools were made again from stone, bones and antlers. The a rare article becoming bronze was hoarded in depots because of the constant raising value.
Also the robbery of many graves, in which were supposed articles from bronze happened surely already in this time. Bronze was only used for small articles for daily use as razors, needles, sickles, knifes and saw blades, which could not be made from other material. Beside that naturally for weapons, because they were necessary for surviving in these restless time. The finds of weapons in open terrain show, that warring quarrels were not seldom.