The Atlantis of Platon at Puerto de Santa Maria in Andalusia/Spain

Lecture at the 3rd. Atlantis Conference the 25/26 of June 2011 at Santorini/Greece

by Karl Juergen Hepke

Independent Researcher
Germany

ABSTRACT

This document shows all evidences, which allow to say with high probability, that the Atlantis, described by Platon in his books Kritias and Timaios, was situated in the south of Spain in the Bay of Cadiz near Puerto de Santa Maria.

1. INTRODUCTION

Since some hundreds of years men are fascinated by the story of the old empire of Atlantis a long time ago. Because the mystery was not sufficiently solved, a new hypothesis about the position of Atlantis was created again and again. Many of them contained something true. Others removed far from the facts, which were given by the very detailed report of Platon and others tried to recognize only the facts, which fitted to their model of Atlantis and put into question all other by all means of intellectual quarrel. Nevertheless they have often promoted the process of thinking, especially when their hypothesis was founded on new scientific insights. There is also a lot of hypothesis about Atlantis for the south of Spain, but until 1997 nearly all these saw Atlantis submerged in front of the coast or in the muddy areas of the delta of the river Gualdaquivir. Until now there are existing projects of diving and digging there by serious institutions. A problem is only, that the delta is in big parts a national park and this will be a problem for the concession for digging. Nearly nobody took great interest in the region more south , which is now called the Bay of Cadiz , though it is known, that towns of importance are created often at places, which have a long tradition for the settlement of people , because of their natural resources. And these towns are in the Bay of Cadiz: Puerto de Santa Maria, the oldest one under several names, Cadiz, also old under several names, Jerez de la Frontera and Puerto Real.

 
2. HOW TO COME TO PUERTO
By research about the megalithic cultures of western Europe, I found, that there was little information about this from
Spain and Portugal. So I went there and took every information about very old times in these countries. I found in Puerto de Santa Maria the little museum and the excavation of Dona Blanca. Besides the fact, that things, made from all existing metals, were found in the excavation, there were also rests of elephants in the museum, which were found in the area of Puerto. This was pointing out to Platon and his story of Atlantis and I got busy to find more concerning this.
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Figure 1. Elephants in
Iberia (Museo de Puerto de Santa Maria)

3. THE EXCAVATION OF DONA BLANCA
“ The town at the castle Dona Blanca is positioned on an artificial hill 34 m above sea level and extends over nearly five hectare. This hill laid at the time of foundation direct at the coast line. The alluvial sedimentations have caused the progressing distance from the sea. The town was founded at the beginning of the VIII century B.C. and was surrounded by a big wall with moat. Its inhabitants were living there until the III century B.C. , when it was left in course of the second punic war. Its here found archaeological features, its position and especially the fact, that we have here a complete Phoenician town without later rebuilding, make of Dona Blanca an excellent key for the knowledge of the Phoenician world.”(Dona Bl. Exc.,2000) This is a part of the official Spanish text at the excavation site. It shows that the town was situated at the edge of a big bay of the sea, which was later on filled with alluvial sediments. These sediments came from the rivers, which came from the Andalusian plain and consisted of water of two arms of the
Guadalquivir and the Gualdalete.(Hepke, 2000)

4. THE GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION AND THE NATURE OF TERRAIN
“The fortified place of Dona Blanca is situated at the foot of the little Sierra de
San Cristobal in the area of Puerto de Santa Maria (Cadiz). In front of the complex is spreading out an extended plain of marches, bogs and saltworks, which is filled up in big parts by the river Guadalete. In its origin this plain was an extended bay in the ground of which was bed and shore area of the river. The Phoenician town was founded at this place in the 8th century B.C. very near to the mouth of the river into the bay with taking advantage of a natural inlet into the mountain slope which gave protection from the wind. The place that was chosen for the foundation of the town was situated very convenient. It was open to the sea and lied very near to the courses of the rivers Guadalete and Guadalquivir, ways to penetrate into the interior to agricultural usable regions and to the mines. In the environment there were ample fresh water, quarries, extended forests and other useful. The sight which gives currently the settlement is that of a table formed hill of nearly rectangular form and 6,5 ha size, that raises 31 m over the sea level. This appearance is the result of its history. It is an artificial created relief which came into being in the course of time by different layers of settlement, one over the other, and reaches at some places a thickness of nine meters above the initial ground.”(Dona Bl.Exc.,2000)

5. HISTORY OF THE TOWN
The position of the town was with that very good for contact with the land behind and also for contact with the sea for trade of merchandise. The preferred merchandise of the south of
Spain was metals as copper, tin, silver, gold, lead , bronze , which were needed especially in the Mediterranean area .” The settlement was used in unbroken succession until the arrival of the romans in the course of the second punic war (206 B.C.). During these 600 years were built two new fortified town walls (in VI and III century B.C.) and made several new arrangements of the town. After that comes a new time of no settlement until the middle age, which changes only in IX and XIII century A.C. In later time in the XV century A.C. was built the tower or eremitage in form of a greek cross, in which places the legend the captivity until murder of Dona Blanca, the wife of Peter I , the cruel .”(Dona Bl.Exc.,2000)
Spanish linguists have found out, that the old word “TAR” has the meaning of “entrance”(Tartessos oficialista ,2010) and so it is nearly certain , that the hill of “Dona Blanca” contains the rest of the town “Tartessos”, which is good known in antiquity as provider of metals.

6. HISTORICAL SOURCES FROM ANTIQUITY
The knowledge of the empire of Tartessos comes from Greek sources. So contains the "Geographica" of Strabo important passages from the Greek poet Stesichoros of Himera. Also fragments from Anakreon and Hekataios and some passages from Herodot mention the south of the
Iberian peninsula. Over that has the Roman poet Rufus Festus Avienus ,called Avieno, in his fragmentary preserved poem "Ora maritima" took down again a Greek text from the 6th. century B.C. about a coast description from Massalia (Marseille). This description is one of the most important sources for the knowledge of the south Iberian coast at which was founded the branch Mainake (today Torre del Mar near Malaga). The dates from the 6th. century B.C. , taken from the poem, are as follows: "Tartessos is situated on an island in a gulf of same name into which flows the river Tartessos, which flows round its walls after having passed the "Laguna Ligustino".The river forms in its mouth area several arms, of which three flow to the East and four to the South. The latter are flowing round the town. They are carrying in their water pieces of heavy tin and bring rich metal to the town of Tartessos. In proximity is situated the mountain of the Tartessians, full of woods, and the "Silvermountain" which lies above the "Laguna Ligustino", at the shore of which is sparkling the tin. The town of Tartessos is connected with the region of Tajo, or Sado, by a way of four days and at the other side with Mainake by a way of five days. There the Tartessians are possessing an "island" which is consecrated to their inhabitants of "Noctiluca". The east border of the reign of the Tartessians was at times the region of Murcia and the west border the region of Huelva.”(Avieno , 550 B.C.) Justinus tells in his excerpt of the historical works of Pompejus Trogus, written in the 3th. century about two legendary kings of Tartessos.” Gorgoris taught the apiculture to the people, while Habis taught farming and cattle breeding. Habis was abandoned as new-born and was brought up by a hind. Habis issued laws, forbid any work to the nobility and shared people into seven classes.”
Historians suppose by this legend, that Tartessos was at the beginning a theocratic monarchy as other states of the beginning. Probably they were not wrong in that, if you take the story of Atlantis as valid for Tartessos as for Tharsis. Because the lack of proof for this thesis, they agreed to the assumption of a divine admired king (similar to the Pharao of Egypt) as you find it in many nations of the Bronze Age. As most famous ruler of Tartessos is regarded the nearly historical vouched Arganthonios, to whom Herodot awards a long life of 120 years and a period of rule of 80 years. As ruler over a rich and peaceful country with a gigantic wealth of metals, he represented for the Greek a kind of Kroesus of the West. The citizen of Samos Kolaios came to him in the 7th. century B.C. cause of a terrible thunderstorm and was received benevolent as a Greek. The king donated the means for the construction of the town wall of Phokaia in form of an immense amount of silver. Phokaia was founding town of Massalia and Mainake and with that representative of the Greek extension to the western
Mediterranean. But the good relations to the Greek were soon interrupted. In the sea-battle of Alalia at Corsica the united fleets of the Etruscians and the Carthagians defeated crushing the fleet of the Greek and terminated with that the further extension of them into the western Mediterranean.
Since 500 B.C. Tartessos disappears from history. Probably it was completely cordoned off from the outside world by the Carthagians. From this "Tartessian time" there are excellent finds, which represent after current opinion a "mixture of indigenous and Phoenician tradition," but probably continue the remains of old Atlantic tradition. They are found mainly at the lower
Guadalquivir and in the valleys of Guadiana, the area, that was once possibly the central Atlantic kingdom with its capital in “Tharsis”, the predecessor of Tartessos at the same place. There were planned and fortified towns such as Niebla, Huelva, Carmona, El Carambolo. In El Carambolo was discovered a spectacular treasure of gold, which proves the high quality of the Atlantic or "Tartessian" gold work. It is now in the Museum of Seville. It was also found a special font that is different from the two previously used in Iberia and has not yet been deciphered. The above-mentioned cities were important places for processing the flourishing trade in metals, again produced and primarily sold in the Mediterranean region, where a huge demand for it was in the burgeoning empires Assyria, Babylon and Egypt and in the by its trade becoming rich cities Tyre, Sidon, and many others. “Tartessos” was seen by several searchers of Atlantis as the right town. A.Schulten, an in Spain good known German professor, was searching for its rests in the 1920 years, but without success.(Schulten ,1950)

7.THE TOWN THARSIS
The holy bible mentions at several places a town called “Tharsis”.(Holy Bible) It is called here the merry town, which is proud of its age. Its merchants, which had branches at Tyrus and
Sidon are called "inhabitants of the island" and their market and port was famous all over the Mediterranean Sea. The "Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible" calls it "the country, from which the people of Tyrus imported silver, iron, tin and lead. Jona tried to go there by ship. Salomon also sent ships to it." (Gafni ,1990). Following the texts of the Bible, Tharsis and the Chittits were sons of Javan, the ankle of Noah, who lived in the western countries and on the islands of the heathens. The ships of Tharsis were the wealthiest and most powerful on the sea and Tharsis itself is called the "town of primeval times". With this information we can easily see in “Tharsis” the ancestor of “Tartessos” and it is nearly certain that its position was not far from Dona Blanca, the position of Tartessos, to take profit from the natural advantages of the site. And this town of Tharsis is probably the town, which called the Egyptians “Atlantis”.(Hepke ,1997)

8. THE POSITION OF THARSIS – ATLANTIS
Following Platon, Atlantis was situated behind the "Pillars of Herakles". The district which was south of the town was named "Gadeiros". The Spanish town
Cadiz, which is situated nearly 100 Km North-West of the Strait of Gibraltar at the coast of the Atlantic, was named in older times Gades and before that, in the time of the ancient Greeks, Gadeiros. Cadiz is taken for a foundation of the Phoenicians and is called the oldest town of the western world. There is no doubt at all, that Cadiz and the Gadeiros of Platon are the same towns. North of Cadiz there is a plain , which is nearly 150 Km large at the sea and is extending in west-east direction nearly 300 Km into southern Spain.” This plain was settled since primeval times. There were found coarse worked tools of stone in layers of pebble, which was the former edge of the sea , reaching to 30 Km further into the land .These tools were assigned to the so-called "homo habilis" and are nearly 1 million years old. With that, they are the oldest testimonials of human settling in the Iberian peninsula.” (Museo de Puerto ,1997). Against the cold wind of the north the plain is protected by a long range of mountains which is called today Sierra Morena . In the language of the Arabian conquerors the country was called "al Andaluz" which following customary interpretation comes from the "Vandals", who here settled before the Visigoths as first people of the Germanic migration and than moved on to North Africa. But a little bit unclear pronounced and thinking of the thousands of years of oral and written name tradition, which has passed, it is not so far away from the name "Atlantis" of the old Egyptians. In Spain of today it is named "Andalucia" and is an independent region of Spain. The town which lies today in front of Cadiz at the land side at the mouth of the Guadalete is called "El Puerto de Santa Maria" and was called in that region since time immemorial "El Puerto", "The Port". Before the conquest by the Moors, it was called, following the official history of town, to his legendary founder "Puerto de Menestheo" , which does mean "The Port of the God Menes." The reader, burdened with knowledge of old history, remembers, that the king or god Menes is known as the man, who unified Upper- and Lower-Egypt and initiated the rapid cultural rise of the land at the Nile around 3000 B.C. This shows at least, that this port is very old and older than the Phoenician trading place Cadiz , which is situated in front of it on a small peninsula and was founded after antique sources at 1100 B.C. In the area of Puerto and its port were found in old dune terrain of the Atlantic at some 10 000 m2 the vestiges of a village in form of huts and houses and assigned to that subterranean constructions in form of a bell, which served as silos and sometimes as tombs. Also were found tools for the production of sun-dried bricks and places of cooking, richly furnished with usual kitchen equipment. Knife-edges, handmade pottery, crescent shaped teeth, arrowheads, thin plates of trapezoid form, sharped flints, splinters of stones and bones were found, showing that there was production of tools and devices for daily use. This early settlement was dated to 3500 B.C.(Museo de Puerto ,1997)


. Figure 2. Succession of settlement in the plain of Puerto de Santa Maria (Google Earth 2010)

 
In the Andalusian plain there is a lot of little rivers and as a big one , which is passable now also for large sea ships , the Guadalquivir. The actual mouth of the Gualdaquivir at Sanlucar de Barrameda was in older times barred by the range of dunes along the coast of the Atlantic and the river formed behind it a big lake called “Laguna Ligustino”, in antiquity, (Esteo ,2008) which is now a part of the Natural Park of Donana. South of the Guadalquivir there is a less big river called Guadalete, which comes from the southern mountains and flows into the Atlantic at the port of Puerto de Santa Maria. Both rivers had in older times common mouths in the Bay of Cadiz. The Gualdaquivir had probably another mouth near the actual town of Rota (Foliot ,1984). Both arms of the Gualdaquivir had, before entering the sea, a connection behind the dunes of the coastline with the name “Canal de Gualdabaque”.(Martin (2008) So the old Bay of Cadiz was reached by two rivers from the north-west and the south-east and also by the tide of the sea and it is pretty possible that the to and fro going water and the wind of the sea , the forces of Poseidon, and also the geological situation, created a lot of water arms and islands in the bay, which at least formed with human aid the water rings of the town of Platon’s Atlantis.


Figure 3. Rivers and canals in the Andalusian plain around 1300 B.C. (Google Earth 2010)

9. TRACES OF ATLANTIS AT PUERTO
In the Bay of Cadiz in the area of the “Ajuntamiento de Puerto de Santa Maria” at its northern edge, with the centre in the modern village “Dona Blanca”, you can see with “Google Earth” of 2010 in the north and north-west region concentric circles in the vegetation.(Hepke ,2010) They are pointing out to circular alternations in the underground. A sign for archaeologists , that possibly interesting things are hidden beneath. At the north-eastern edge to the rocky hills you can also see, in form of a circle with the same centre, the rests of a circular canal with small water but bigger extension in the vegetation. This can bee the northern edge of the outer canal of the three water rings of Atlantis. The excavation place of Dona Blanca/Tartessos is not far from it and this canal can also be the rest of one of the harbour arms surrounding Tartessos, mentioned in ancient literature. Behind the excavation site, at the other side of the road to “El Portal” there is a large area with big graves from megalithic times until Turdetanian times that covers a time space of nearly two thousand years.
The official Spanish text to this is:”The necropolis of the town is situated in the area called "Las Cumbres" of the Sierra de
San Cristobal and covers an area of 100 hectare. In it we find a distribution in centres or cemeteries of certain epochs reaching from middle bronze until Turdetanian Times. The types of burials and the matter of burying, which we can find, are different. They are reaching from graves hewn into the rock to structures of artificially placed hills or "tumulus" covering graves of burned dead. The group of professor Diego Ruiz Mata carried out a campagne of digging up in the years 1984-85. The tumulus I of Las Cumbres, the only one excavated until now, contained five burials of to 80 persons, placed in circular structure. The centre had here an "Ustrinum", that means a place where were burnt the dead. In its surrounding were placed, according to their status, the burned rests of the dead in that way, that the richest were buried next to the ritual place of burning. At the end of the VIII century is pointed out a still stronger respect to the status in a tumulus, which is included in an earlier one and in the center of which is positioned the burning place of an individuum with rich equipment and in his surrounding a certain number of much simpler burials.”(Dona Bl.exc.,2000)


Figure 4. Concentric rings in the vegetation in the
Bay of Cadiz (Google Earth 2010)

North of this, mounting the hill of rocky lime-stone of best quality, you find astonishing quarries in form of parallel canals, broad like a street and more than 10 m deep. From these canals are going into the rock big caves, bigger than a house . Other caves like this are hewn directly into the rock and were possibly once the place of a burial of a king. From history of Tyrus and Karthago is known, that there were quarries similar to this, to gain good and big stones for temples and fortifications.(Picard ,1957) For until now stones like this were only found in little quantity near the excavation site of Dona Blanca, the most of it must be lay hidden in the canal rings of Tharsis-Atlantis and are probably cause of the circular rings in the vegetation.

10. ARTIFICIAL CANALS
In the report of Platon , concerning Atlantis , are mentioned several artificial canals for transport of material for buildings to the town and for irrigation of the fields in summer. The biggest one is an artificial canal around the whole plain, big enough for two passing ships, from which are going out smaller canals in regular distance for irrigation. The plain of west
Andalusia with its river Gualdaquivir has such canals. The biggest one is the “Canal de bajo Gualdaquivir” which goes from “Palma del Rio”, where it parts from the Gualdaquivir, over a distance of nearly 200 Km to the deep plain near “Lebrija” where it is again connected with the Gualdaquivir. In old times it continued south-west from today Jerez de la Frontera to the north of the Sierra de San Cristobal and entered near “El Portal” the river Gualdalete. The now dry route is until now existent and called “canada” or “hijuela” which means “deep way” or “dug out canal”. Another canal, which was in older times the “Canal de Gualdabaque” (Tartessos oficialista (2010) is now called “Canal de costa noroeste” built in concrete stone for less lost of water and provided from the water sources of the Sierra de San Cristobal for irrigation. The dug out canal, which connected the town of Atlantis with the sea, is in some parts until now existant as water way, in other parts as depression of level 0 – 1 m .(Hepke ,2000)

9. ALTERNATIONS IN THE TERRAIN SINCE THE TIME OF ATLANTIS
The terrain of the
Bay of Cadiz is without doubt an ancient water bay, which was filled by the rivers with alluvial sedimentations. The northern edge is formed by low hills of lime stone, which are mounting to north to the Sierra de San Cristobal with a maximal height of 124 m. This sierra consists in big parts of lime stone, in other parts of dunes and was originally covered in parts with wood. In the eastern part, where the Sierra reaches its greatest height and forms at least a small ridge of lime stone, are existing big fountains in a saddle, which once provided all settlements since Atlantis with an abundance of good water. Now this water is taken by a water company and provides all towns of the bay with it. Its reservoirs are situated in a park at the top of the sierra. An investigation of the terrain of the plain with Google Earth has shown, that there is in the centre a maximal height of 4 m surrounded by other heights of 3 m. This is not very much , but the other heights in the bay are mostly 2 until 0 m. At this centre is now situated the modern village of Dona Blanca and its soil seems to be lime stone. Because Platon tells, that the centre island of Atlantis laid on a ”hill, low to all sides” , the actual height seems not to bee sufficient. There are some possibilities for this.

1. The whole terrain of the plain sunk in the Atlantis catastrophe for 2 or 3 meters.(18) This fits the story, that Atlantis could not be found after the catastrophe and the sea was too low for passing with ships.
2. The low hill of lime stone was taken by later people for a source of slaked lime for building, after they had used up the rests of lime stones of Atlantis buildings for the same purpose.
3. The same was made in recent times by modern cement industry. Afterwards, one built, on the for agriculture useless soil , the modern
village of Dona Blanca. The cement industry of the region is very aggressive and has even used the Sierra de San Cristobal near the Necropole de las Cumbres for gain of lime stone.

After the catastrophe, the whole bay was filled with water for a long period. In this time, around 1100 B.C., was founded the town of Cadiz on a ridge of rock in the sea in front of the bay by the Phoenicians. It is possible, that they changed the flow of water in the bay, for three hundred years later it was possible, to found the town of Tartessos, in better position, at the northern edge of the bay and reach it with ships from the sea. It is interesting, to hear from greek people, who got in that time to Tartessos, that there was a lot of sparkling tin at the foot of the Sierra de San Cristobal, which they called “Silver Mountain”, in the water near Tartessos.(Avieno,550 B.C.) Without doubt, it was the tin from the walls of the destroyed Atlantis, but nobody of that time knew this. They thought, that it came from the mountains of the Sierra and told , that the Tartessians could easily gain the tin in their rivers.

10. THE CATASTROPHE OF ATLANTIS
“Howl, ships of Tharsis, for it is destroyed, there is no more a house and nobody is going there. The inhabitants of the island got quiet and the fortress at the sea is speaking: I am no more pregnant , I do no more give birth, I do no more raise youths and bring up no virgins. Howl, inhabitants of the island. Go to Tharsis, is that your merry town, that is proud of its age.”( Jesaja, Chapter 23.) What had happened, what shook men as far as the eastern edge of the
Mediterranean. From archaeological digging up we know, that Troja was destroyed around 1250 B.C. by an earthquake. From the area of Mykene in southern Greece are known big damages by earthquakes out of this time. In the plain of Argolis , south of Mykene, were found additional damages by a devastating flood. A about five meters thick layer of mud covered parts of the town of Tyrins.(Zangger ,1991) From Ronda, a town more than 3000 years old in the mountains of Andalusia is known, that an earthquake in prehistoric time has split an over 100 meters high rock, on which is now situated the town , and left a deep gorge, which is nowadays crossed by three bridges.
In Jesaja, Chapter 24, you can read, what was probably reported by eyewitnesses:" The earth will burst and decay with crash. The earth will stagger like a drunken man and will be thrown to and fro like a hanging bed. For the windows of the height are opened and the foundations of the earth are trembling." There was obviously not only a devastating earthquake, but additionally were "opened the heavens" and an enormous continuing cloudburst fell unto the country, washed ashore the ground from the mountains, which were robbed of its woods by men, and fell as an avalanche of water and mud into the valleys, sweeping away men and animals, trees, walls and towns. A land of horror was left, in which no man would further live. For what you can read further in Jesaja: "Look, the LORD is making the country empty and waste, throws around what is in it and scatters its inhabitants. The country stands wretched and ruined , the ground is decreasing and spoiled. Only desertedness is in the town and the gates are open. Earthquakes of this magnitude have an additional terrible effect mainly at coastal regions. They produce a wave in the sea , that in inopportune cases can rise unto 200 meters. Today it is called "Tsunami", a term which is coming from
Japan, for in today times this phenomenon is known from the coast regions of its islands. It overflows the coast and tears away everything. It is possible, that a centre of the earthquake was in front of the coast of Iberia, that a wave found its way into the unprotected plain of Andalusia and destroyed everything , leaving a desert of mud into which no ship could penetrate. With that the statement of Platon about the destruction of Atlantis would be correct. " In the same manner was the island of Atlantis drawn from the sight of eyes by sinking into the sea. The sea there got impassable and cannot be researched, because the mud in low depth, which left the sinking island, became a hindrance." For the big earthquake was combined with devastating cloudbursts, both affected the whole area of Mediterranean including Greece, and the catastrophe lasted following Platon one day and one night, the cause of that catastrophe could have been the impact of a big meteorite in the Atlantic, near the coast. This meteorite and the by its impact-force caused following earthquake were the trigger of an enormous wave, which struck the Atlantic coast of Iberia, France, England, Ireland and in more moderate form the countries bordering the North Sea and produced the destruction of many at the coast situated towns of that time.(Spanuth ,1953)
Also for the cultural and political centre of the empire, Tharsis, it was death and destruction of the town. Its location at the South-West coast of
Iberia, at a bay, the centre only 10 km from the sea, on a small hill, behind it a mountain range parallel to the coast line, was extremely inopportune for such a wave. To the sea extended the plain, only some meters over the sea level. And this plain was passed through by a river and artificial canals, of which the main canal, which was also the port, run in a width of 100 meters in an angle of 90 degrees to the coast line directly to the centre of the town. The town of merchants at the canal, described by Platon, with its light buildings of wood and clay was at first swept away by the wave and the hill and the centre were additionally covered with the rubble of the suburb. Different it was at the hill. Here stood the old main buildings, temple and palace of the king, built in Atlantian manner strong and sure with big stones. Here can have remained a part of the old structure of the town under rubble and the washed up mud. Especially interesting at digging up this place will be that Tharsis, like Pompeji and Herculaneum, was destroyed by a natural disaster and that all treasures and devices of daily life were not robbed by men but destroyed in worst case only by the force of the nature. Because at Tharsis, the center of the Atlantian metal commerce, were available a lot of metal devices of gold, silver, bronze and copper, an extensive digging up action must bring rich finds
The wave of the sea, which swept away the town in the plain and the port and destroyed the king town , flooded back again and carried with it to the sea all sort of swimming material, which was destroyed or loosened by the earthquake or the flowing wave. That could be men, animals, beams, ships, trees, ground, mud, the harvest of the fields and the vegetation of the surface of the earth. It remained a desert of mud, spilled canals, a mud filled bay. The following torrential cloudbursts, lasting for days, caused an additional flood from the mountains, which could not flow away through the rivers and canals blocked by trees, stones and mud. The country became marshy and every access to the former town, as told in the report of Platon, was made impossible for a long time. Still today there are in the
Bay of Cadiz and the southern coast big salt marshes in the coast area. The modern road building has made them passable, but its look tells still today of the miserableness which radiated the country after the catastrophe and induced the survived to take flight. Over that, still now the coast area is marked by salted, infertile soil, partly far into the land. Platon tells, that one terrible night and one day was sufficient to erase Atlantis. For men of today, who have seen, that mighty tsunami waves can extinguish even modern towns in moments, there is no problem to believe this. South Spain is a region where big earthquakes under the sea ground are possible, because the African plate is here submerging under the Eurasian plate.(Hepke ,2004) The latest known big earthquake here, with a large tsunami wave, was the earthquake of Lisbon at 1755. The tsunami wave of it reached at Cadiz a height of 14 m. The last tsunami near Fukushima in Japan has shown , that waves much higher are possible.


Figure 6. Change Number of number of pollen by mainly climatic influence (Arte television movie)

10. THE ALTERNATION OF CLIMATE
From modern research of old climate is known , that exactly at 1250 B.C. a sudden alternation of climate has happened.(Hepke (2008/2) Sudden alternations of climate can not be caused only by earthquakes. For this, there must be a big eruption of one or more large volcano, or the impact of a bigger part of an asteroid or meteorite, or the explosion of several modern atom bombs, causing big and long lasting pollution of the upper atmosphere. From the report of Platon we see, that the Greek and Egyptians knew, that some time ago a part from the sky had caused big fires in some countries and had at least fallen into the western sea. The impact of this can have caused the earthquake and tsunami in the Atlantic sea and also the sudden alternation of climate all over the world.(Spanuth (1953) This sudden alternation of climate was not, as some think, an alternation to hot and dry, but an alternation to cold and wet. It forced the inhabitants of the northern and western countries of
Europe, to leave their homeland and go East and South.(Hepke (2000/2) This was the exodus of the people , which are known in history as the sea-people in Egypt , as Aramaeans in the Near East, as Arians in India and so on.

11. THE TIME OF ATLANTIS
There was a big discussion, lasting until now, about the time of Atlantis. And this was the fault of the report of Platon. In his report he tells, that the time of Atlantis was 9000 years before the time , when Solon was in
Egypt. If we take this for 500 B.C. Atlantis must have existed around 9500 B.C.. But al items of the story are fitting only the time of bronze. This seemed to be absolutely unserious , gave a bad image to Platon and made many people think, that the whole story of Atlantis is a fake. There were many attempts made by numerous scientists , to clarify this . The best fitting solution is this, that the Egyptian priest, who gave the story and the date to Solon, had not meant sun years, but moon years,(Zangger (1996) the time from one full moon to the next, that means nearly our month. Nearly, because the moon needs 28 days for one surrounding of the earth, not the 30 or 31 days of our recent calendar. These 28 days are a time measure, common for all people on earth , without any problem with the special calendar of every country. This makes 365 : 28 = 13 surroundings of the moon in our year. 9000 moon years divided through 13 makes 692 sun years. This added to 500 makes 1192 B.C. at our calendar. This fits sufficiently the time of the end of the age of bronze, because the 9000 “years” of the report were surely not exact and the time of Solons visit in Egypt is also not exactly known. Remains the question , why the report says “years” not “months. Who could have had interest in a false historic date? Not the Egyptian priest, neither Platon. Perhaps it is a mistake of a translater , who made the copy in Arabian times or in the middle age ,which passed the hundreds of years until the time of enlightenment, when Platon was read again in western Europe ?

12. CONCLUSIONS
Nearly 15 years of search for the sources and facts of the Atlantis story have produced the upper items. I think , that they are good enough to go to practice. That means, investigation of the soil of the
Bay of Cadiz with modern methods of geomagnetic resonance and than, if successful, excavation of the most interesting places. This needs a lot of money and investors or a man like Schliemann are searched to promote this.

REFERENCES
Dona Blanca (2005) Text at excavation site
Esteo M.R. (2008) Tartessos y Europa, Tartessos oficialista ,Internet
Hepke K.J. (1997)
www.tolos.de/atlantis1.html
Hepke, K.J. (2000)
www.tolos.de/tartessos1.e.html
Hepke K.J. (2000)
www.tolos.de/sea-people.e.html
Hepke K.J. (2004)
www.tolos.de/cadiz2.e.html
Hepke K.J. (2008)
www.tolos.de/climate.e.html
Hepke K.J. (2010)
www.tolos.de/atlantis1.E.html
Hepke K.J. (2010)
www.tolos.de/insula2.E.html
La Gadir Fenicia, (2011) celtiberia.net
Martin P. (2008) , La Localizazion de Tartessos, Tartessos oficialista, Internet
Museo de Puerto de Santa Maria (1997)
Tartessos oficialista (2010) Tartessos.info:tartessos , Internet

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Avieno ( 550 B.C.) Ora maritima
Folliot K.A. (1984), Atlantis revisited, Oxford, Professional Books Ltd.
Gafni S. (1990) Illustrated Dictionary and Concordance of the Bible, Jerusalem Publishing House
Hepke K.J. (2004/2010) Die Geschichte von Atlantis, Rothenbergen, Triga-Verlag
Holy Bible, Jesaja a.al.
Picard G. (1957) Das wiederentdeckte Karthago,
Frankfurt, H.Scheffler
Schulten A..
(1950) Tartessos, Hamburg, Universität Hamburg
Spanuth J. (1953) Das enträtselte Atlantis, Stuttgart, Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft
Zangger E. (1996) Atlantis, eine Legende wird entziffert, Augsburg, Weltbild Verlag GmbH

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Read to this in English: The History of Atlantis, the forgotten Origin of our Culture         By Karl Juergen Hepke

Or as a book in German language:

 

DIE GESCHICHTE VON ATLANTIS, der vergessene Ursprung unserer Kultur
by Karl Juergen Hepke
TRIGA - DER VERLAG, D 63584 Gruendau-Rothenbergen, Germany, 2nd Edition, Hardcover, 268 Pages, EUR 22,00, ISBN 978-3-89774-539-1 ,

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